l          Chinese name:Mint

l          English name:mint

l          Scientific term:Mentha species

l          The section belongs to:The lips form flower section mint belongs to

l          At first habitat:The Eurasia non- mainland

l          Characteristic:The whole stubses have strong fresh and cool flavor.The single leaf has the Shu fluff and yellow line to order towards getting, oval or long oval, both sides, leaf's good luck Ji department has tidy or not tidy and flat sharp teeth of a saw above.The aerial stem of plant crawls or straightens, the square is hollow, covering with the tiny fluff and gland to order.Root the form caulis is thin to grow.The corolla lavender, the calyx clock form, is outside ordered by the white fluff and gland.The nutlet grows circular.Educate main theme:The pleased warmth is moist, sunlight ample environment, grow proper as degrees, the soil takes enriching to have the machine quality and ventilating good alkalescence soil of sex as good, the mint born nature is strong and healthy, underground root-stock below 0 can also survive, breeding can insert with the dibble, offshoot or Qian etc. method;Sow seeds to take spring as good, the Qian inserts or offshoot then spring, the autumn is all suitable for two seasons, becoming to live a rate all rather high.


l          Breed a way:The dibble, offshoot, Qian inserts    

l          Use:Seasoning, make juice, refine ethereal oil and perk up


Peppermint is a perennial flowering plant that grows throughout Europe and North America. Peppermint is widely cultivated for its fragrant oil, which is obtained through steam distillation of the fresh above-ground parts of the plant. Peppermint oil has been used historically for numerous health conditions, including common cold symptoms, cramps, headache, indigestion, joint pain, and nausea. Peppermint leaf has been used for stomach/intestinal disorders and for gallbladder disease.

Mint plants such as peppermint and spearmint have a long history of medicinal use, dating to ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome. The scientific name for peppermint (Mentha x piperita) is derived from the name Mintha, a Greek mythological nymph who transformed herself into the plant, and from the Latin piper meaning "pepper." Peppermint is believed to be a cross (hybrid) between spearmint and water mint that arose naturally.

Peppermint oil is available in bulk herb oil, enteric-coated capsules, soft gelatin capsules, and in liquid form. In small doses such as in tea or chewing gum, peppermint is generally believed to be safe in healthy, non-pregnant, non-allergic adults. The United States is a principal producer of peppermint, and the largest markets for peppermint oil are manufacturers of chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash, and pharmaceuticals.


Uses based on scientific evidence


Indigestion (non-ulcer dyspepsia)

There is preliminary evidence from a small number of controlled trials that a combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil may be beneficial for dyspepsia (heartburn) symptoms. However, most studies have been poorly designed (methodologically weak with small sample sizes, inadequate use of control or placebo groups, unclear descriptions of blinding and randomization, and lack of use of standardized scales for identifying subjects or assessing endpoints). It is not clear which constituent(s) may be beneficial. Nonetheless, the existing evidence does suggest efficacy of this combination. It should be noted that heartburn can actually be a side effect of taking oral peppermint oil, which has been reported by patients in several controlled trials of peppermint oil. Patients with chronic heartburn should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider and may be advised to undergo a diagnostic endoscopy prior to initiating any treatment for heartburn.


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Multiple randomized controlled trials of peppermint suggest significant improvements in irritable bowl syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Although the mechanism of action is not clear, pre-clinical studies suggest smooth muscle relaxing properties of peppermint (calcium antagonism may play a role). Enteric-coated peppermint preparations are generally recommended. Overall, studies have been brief with small sample sizes and methodological weaknesses (unclear diagnostic criteria, lack of validated measurement scales, unclear blinding and randomization procedures). Well-designed large trials are necessary before a strong recommendation can be made. Future studies should use standardized symptom scales and established diagnostic criteria to classify patients proir to enrollment (such as Rome II Diagnostic Criteria), uniform dosing and standardization, and longer duration.


Antispasmodic (gastric spasm)

One study reports that peppermint oil solution administered intraluminally can be used as an antispasmodic agent with superior efficacy and fewer side effects than hyoscine-N-butylbromide administered by intramuscular injection during upper endoscopy.


Tension headache

Application of diluted peppermint oil to the forehead and temples has been tested in people with headache. Studies have not been well conducted, and it is not clear if this is an effective treatment.



Due to limited human study, there is not enough evidence to recommend for or against the use of peppermint oil in the treatment of nausea. Further research is needed before a recommendation can be made.


Nasal congestion

Menthol, a constituent of peppermint oil, is sometimes included in inhaled preparations for nasal congestion, including "rubs" that are applied to the skin and inhaled. Early research suggests that the nose breathing may be improved, although it is not clear if there are true benefits on breathing or nasal congestion. High quality research is lacking in this area.


Urinary tract infection

There is limited study of peppermint tea added to other therapies for urinary tract infections. It is not clear if this is an effective treatment, and it is not recommended to rely on peppermint tea alone to treat this condition.


Key to grades
A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B: Good scientific evidence for this use;
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D: Fair scientific evidence against this use;
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use.


Uses based on tradition or theory

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Antacid, anorexia, antiviral, arthritis, asthma, bile duct disorders, bronchial spasm, cancer, chicken pox, cholelithiasis (gallstones), colonic spasm (during colonoscopy or barium enema), common cold, cough, cramps, dysmenorrhea (menstrual pain), enteritis, fever, fibromyositis, gallbladder disorders, gas (flatulence), gastrointestinal disorders, gastritis, gonorrhea, head lice (Pediculus humanus capitus), ileus (post-operative), inflammation of oral mucosa, influenza, intestinal colic, laryngeal spasm, local anesthetic, morning sickness, motility disorders, mouthwash, musculoskeletal pain, myalgia (muscle pain), neuralgia (nerve pain), postherpetic neuralgia, pruritus (itching), rheumatic pain, sun block, tendonitis, toothache, tuberculosis, urticaria (hives).

Claims about the use of peppermint extract for medicinal purposes are wide ranging and mostly untested. They include the use of peppermint for help with digestion, relief of bloating, flatulence, menstrual cramps, tension headaches, and cold and flu symptoms, which is its most common use. It is a cooling agent that is said to relieve itching when applied topically. It is also said to have antiviral properties and therefore to be helpful in treating herpes, as well as helping the body break up gallstones. However, none of these uses has been sufficiently scientifically documented. To be on the safe side, peppermint extract should only be used as a flavoring in baking or to make a tasty herbal infusion, also known as "tea", by mixing it into hot water.



The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.


 Adults (18 years and older)

Peppermint oil: Peppermint oil should be used cautiously, as doses of the constituent menthol over 1 gram per kilogram of body weight may be deadly. For intestinal/digestion disorders, doses  milliliters of peppermint oil in enteric-coated capsules, dilute preparations, or suspensions taken three times daily by mouth have been used or studied. Lozenges containing milligrams of peppermint oil have been used.  peppermint oil (in methanol) has been applied to the skin (forehead and temples) multiple times per day for headache relief. Some sources recommend using peppermint oil preparations on the skin no more than  times per day, although reliable safety information is limited in this area. For inhalation, drops of oil added to  milliliters of hot water and inhaled up to three times per day  essential oil as a nasal ointment has been used to relieve congestion. Enteric coated peppermint oil capsules may be better tolerated than other dosage forms.

Peppermint leaf: There is limited study of the safety/effectiveness of peppermint leaf preparations, and doses are based on traditional use or anecdote. As an infusion,  grams of peppermint leaf has been used daily. Doses of other liquid preparations depend on concentration, for example,  milliliters of tincture  three times daily, or 1 milliliter of spirits leaf extract, mixed with water has been taken. Various doses of dried herb extract have been noted traditionally, ranging from  grams daily up to 4 grams taken three times daily, although safety is not clear.


Children (younger than 18 years)

There is not enough scientific information available to recommend the safe use of peppermint leaf or oil in children.



The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.


Allergic/hypersensitivity reactions may occur from using peppermint or menthol by mouth or on the skin, including throat closing (laryngeal spasm), breathing problems (bronchial constriction/asthma symptoms), or skin rash/hives/contact dermatitis. People with known allergy/hypersensitivity to peppermint leaf or oil should avoid peppermint products.


Side Effects and Warnings

Peppermint is generally regarded as being safe in non-allergic adults when taken in small doses, for example as tea.

Peppermint oil may be safe in small doses, although multiple adverse effects are possible. When used on the skin, peppermint oil has been associated with allergic/hypersensitivity reactions, skin rash/hives/contact dermatitis, mouth ulcers/sores, and eye irritation. Peppermint oil taken by mouth may cause headache, dizziness, heartburn, anal burning, slow heart rate, or muscle tremor. Mouth sores may occur with peppermint oil-containing mouthwashes. There is report of asthma symptoms related to a mint-flavored toothpaste. Very large doses of peppermint oil taken by mouth in animals have resulted in muscle weakness, brain damage, and seizure. Peppermint oil should be used cautiously by people with G6PD deficiency (based on reports of jaundice in babies exposed to menthol) or gallbladder disease (gallstones, bile duct obstruction). Enteric-coated tablets have been recommended in those with hiatal hernia or heartburn/gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), over other dosage forms. Use in infants or children is discouraged due to potential toxicity, including when inhaled, taken by mouth, or used on the skin around the facial area.

Menthol, a constituent of peppermint oil that is included in mouthwashes, toothpastes, mentholated cigarettes, and decongestant "rubs" or lozenges, has been associated with multiple adverse effects. Although small amounts may be safe in non-allergic adults, doses over 1 gram per kilogram of body weight may be deadly in humans, and toxic doses can be absorbed through the skin (and may be increased with local application of heat, such as with a heating pad). Serious breathing difficulties or triggering of asthma symptoms may occur with menthol use near the nose or on the chest. Mouth sores have been associated with use of mint-flavored toothpaste, mouthwash, or mentholated cigarettes. Mentholated cigarettes have been linked with skin bruising (purpura), although the exact cause has nit been proven. Use on the skin of menthol or methyl salicylate (also a peppermint oil constituent) has rarely been associated with rash, severe skin damage (necrosis), or kidney damage (interstitial nephritis). Inhalation of large doses of menthol may lead to dizziness, confusion, muscle weakness, nausea, or double vision. High doses of menthol have caused brain damage in animal studies.


Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

Peppermint oil and menthol should be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding due to insufficient information and potential for toxicity.



Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.


Interactions with Drugs

There is a preliminary report that taking peppermint oil by mouth may increase blood levels of the drugs felodipine and simvastatin. In rats, peppermint oil increases levels of cyclosporine in the blood, although effects in humans are not clear. Based on rat research, peppermint oil used on the skin with fluorouracil  may increase the rate of absorption .

Based on laboratory studies, peppermint oil may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be increased in the blood, and may cause increased effects or potentially serious adverse reactions. If you are using any medications, check the package insert and speak with your healthcare provider or pharmacist about possible interactions.


Interactions with Herbs and Supplements

Based on laboratory studies, peppermint oil may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's "cytochrome  enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements to be too high in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements possibly have on the P450 system, such as bloodroot, cat's claw, chamomile, chaparral, chasteberry, damiana, Echinacea angustifolia, goldenseal, grapefruit juice, licorice, oregano, red clover, St. John's wort, wild cherry, and yucca. If you are using any medications, check the package insert and speak with your healthcare provider or pharmacist about possible interactions.

Effect of l-menthol on laryngeal receptors

We have studied the effect of l-menthol on laryngeal receptors. Experiments have been conducted in 11 anesthetized dogs that breathed through a tracheostomy. We have recorded the activity  laryngeal cold receptors and  mechanoreceptors. Constant flows of air,  (low) and (high), passing for s through the isolated upper airway in the expiratory direction, lowered laryngeal temperature and activated the cold receptors. This cold-induced discharge promptly ceased upon withdrawal of the airflow. Addition of l-menthol to the airflow evoked, for a similar decrease in temperature, a greater peak activation of the cold receptors than airflow alone ; statistical significance was reached only for the lower flow. This activity outlasted the cessation of airflow , even at a time when laryngeal temperature had returned to control similar trials with airflow alone). Four laryngeal cold receptors were also tested with l-menthol added to a warm, humidified airflow that did not change laryngeal temperature; all of them were stimulated with a long-lasting discharge. Nine cold receptors were also tested with d-neomenthol and d-isomenthol; both isomers stimulated the receptors. None of the  mechano-receptors tested was affected by l-menthol. We conclude that l-menthol constitutes a specific stimulant of laryngeal cold receptors and could provide a useful tool for the study of their reflex effects.


Analysis of numbers of papers/mentions over time



Menthol is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above. The main form of menthol occurring in nature is (-)-menthol, which is assigned the  configuration. Menthol has local anesthetic and counterirritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation





Systematic name


for racemic (−)-isomer


Other names

3-p-Menthanol,Hexahydrothymol,Menthomenthol,peppermint camphor

Molecular formula





White or colorlesscrystalline solid

CAS number

[89-78-1], racemic[2216-51-5], (−)-isomer


Solubility in water

Slightly soluble, (−)-isomer

In ethanol, diethyl ether,
acetone, chloroform
acetic acid, hexane









l          Circulatory system: Neuralgia, the muscle pain, heart palpitates.

l          Breathe system: Asthma, bronchitis, halitosis, nasosinusitis, the spasm coughs.The experiment confirms peppermint oil in Europe cures asthma the most valid.

l          Digestive system: Hernia, spasm, the stomach is weak, flatulence, fell sick.

l          Immune system: Catch a cold cold, develop a fever.

l          Nervous system: Dizzy Jue, headache, the spirit is exhausted, migraine, the nerve is nervous, faint.

l          The skin maintains: Pimple, dermatitis, round tinea, scabies, the tooth is painful.


With the decomposition skin surface hair bag, the sebum dirty mark inside the gland, , the strong power sweeps a skin, complement the skin humidity, fresh and cool and relaxed mint grass,

Have to turn to the skin wet, Shu Xie, reduce the heat, refrain from rash action, eliminate inflammation, decrease swelling of function, jot down according to this grass outline:[Mint H, , not poisonous, belong to dissipate of solution form, be used for an evil skin of breeze to scratch an itch a disease, for contain after the skin descend of the hot and damp greasy and dark Chuang type skin has already dispeled heat to counteract poison of effect] general skin is the most suitable match the skin sunburn and insolation of swollen and inflamed, the sensitive becomes itchy easily, paying the oil and pore for the skin of the pimple type and easily bulky, easy infection type of skin, can also have row poison to the function of the grease.

With the decomposition skin surface hair bag, the sebum dirty mark inside the gland, , the strong power sweeps a skin, complement the skin humidity, have slow effect, can relax tired of skin, adjust to manage an excessive grease, don't all improve illegitimate profit of condition, is an oil and mix the best hydration of sex skin to control good assistant of oil!