奇異果.Actinidia Chinensis (Kiwi)

Actinidia Chinensis (Kiwi)



What is it?
A natural protease enzyme extracted from organic kiwi fruit.

Why Kiwi Fruit?
Kiwi has a high level of actinidin, a protease enzyme that mimics the natural enzyme pepsin.
Naturally occuring high levels of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Magnesium, Potassium and Essential Fatty Acids.
(68% Alpha Linolenic Acid = an Omega-3 EFA, and precursor to EPA and DHA)

What is it for?
Can help solve the problems caused by digestive dysfunction.

What is digestive dysfunction?
Reduced enzyme activity in the stomach (mainly pepsin) caused by an incorrect balance of bacterial
activity, resulting in un-digested or partly digested foods passing through the body.

Why does it occur?
Friendly Bacteria (acidophilus and bifodus) are reduced by preservatives in the food, antibiotics and poor diet.

What are the symptoms?
The symptoms range from heartburn and gastric reflux, to feeling bloated and constipation. More importantly, digestion is the process of processing and metabolising nutrients and energy from food. Poor digestion can therefore lead to a multitude of more serious problems ranging from simple tiredness to nutrient deficiency. There are also many studies indicating that high levels of undigested protein (from red meat in particular) is a major cause of bowel cancer.

What are the drawbacks?
None! Unlike antacids and laxatives which treat the symptoms, Kiwi Extract solves the cause of the problem: poor digestion. If can drink orange juice, you can take Kiwi Extract with no side effects.

Why not just eat yoghurts or take probiotics?
This only boosts the levels of acidophilus and bifods bacteria in the stomach and gut. If the pH is too high in the stomach, or the balance of "good" and "bad" bacteria is too extreme they will take a long time to improve the situaton, if at all. Kiwi Extract takes the strain off the bacteria by providing enzyme activity directly, effectively "cutting out the middle man".

Who should take Kiwi Extract?
People with IBS, constipation and indigestion. The elderly, incapacitated or wheelchair bound. Patients on chemotherapy, baby boomers and suffers of all forms of gastroenterological problems.


Kiwi Seed Oil

What is It?
Kiwi Seed Oil extracted from Kiwifruit / Chinese Gooseberry (L. Actinidia chinensis PLANCHON)

The New Zealand Kiwifruit is also known as the Chinese Goosberry. The vine originated in Asia and has been grown in New Zealand for the past 60 years.

The Fruit
Kiwifruit is regarded as being a rich source of vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium, magnesium and dietary fibre. Kiwifruit has been recognised as the second most nutritionally dense fruit after Guava. In addition, kiwifruit contains the very acid stable protease enzyme group, actinidin. We can now add to this very impressive nutritional and dietary profile, the rich source of essential fatty acids that are contained in the kiwifruit seeds.

The Seeds
Less than 3% of the total weight of the Kiwifruit is made up of the seeds. The seeds are very small and delicate, separation from the pulp takes place via a special process developed in New Zealand. The seeds are then stabilised for shipment.

The Seed Oil
The Kiwi Seed contains over 60% of the very nutritionally important Essential Fatty Acid (EFA), Alpha Linolenic Acid (ALA), an essential Omega 3 fatty acid that is normally found in much lower concentrations in some other seeds such as Flax Seed or must be extracted from Fish Oils. The body naturally converts between 2% and 10% of the ALA into eicosapentanoeic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The body also uses the EFAs contained in Kiwi Seed Oil to help maintain the proper wall flexibility of cells and restore the proper cholesterol /triglyceride ratio. This keeps our cell membranes soft and pliable, facilitating receptors in the membrane to work to bring vital compounds to regulate the cell and to provide easy entry for oxygen and nutrients and an efficient exit for carbon dioxide and wastes.

The Applications for Kiwi Seed Oil
Cosmetic Topical Applications : Kiwi Seed Oil is ideally suited for skin and hair care products as the high concentration of ALA helps to maintain moisture in the skin and hair and prevent drying and scaling. Classic anti aging product and an important dermatitis formulation ingredient.

Functional Food Applications : Kiwi Seed Oil is an ideal example of a truly functional food, providing a natural source of energy. In addition to conversion into EPA and DHA the EFAs in Kiwi Seed Oil are what your body needs to help emulsify and absorb the fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E, & K as well as conversion of Linoleic acid into arachidonic acid. This helps to maintain resilience and lubrication of all cells and combine with protein and cholesterol to form living membranes that hold the body cells together.


Health Benefits

Kiwi Extract is excellent for digestional disorders, therefore it would be good for Indegestion, Constipation and IBS.

Hospitals in New Zealand have found it to be particularly effective for patients on Chemotherapy courses,
also for Spinal Injuries, Burns and Geriatric Patients,
as well as for Pregnant Women.

Kiwi Extract Information Website - Technical Information

Kiwi Fruit Extract
Colour : pale green
Flavour : pleasant, sharp taste
Odour : fresh fruit

Forms : Bulk Powder
Tablets, Capsules
Kiwi Crush Drink

Kiwi Seed Oil
Colour : light yellow
Odour : slight citron aroma

Forms : Liquid or Powder



●Kiwi (Actitinidia chinensis)
1. The same properties can be found in Kiwi (Actitinidia chinensis).
Kiwi extract has significant effect on inhibiting tyrosine and
2. The combination of Sophora flavescens and Kiwi
(Actitinidia chinensis) can solve the skin problems caused by
scars, inhibit the generation of melanin and prevent scar tissue
from forming unpleasant color.


Kiwi allergies to open up synthetic flavour market

Opportunities for the synthetic kiwi flavour market have opened up after findings from a small study in the UK show that the kiwi fruit appears to be a significant food allergen capable of causing severe reactions, particularly in young children with other allergic reactions

The market for nature-identical kiwi flavours falls well behind the most popular fruit flavours in the marketplace ?apple and orange ?and is just a fraction of the strawberry market.

Today, food makers tend to select natural kiwi extract over the synthetic equivalent in food formulations. But if the kiwi fruit proves to be a strong food allergen, alternatives to the natural extracts will grow in popularity.

The research team at the University of Southampton that carried out the kiwi study ?the first large detailed study specifically designed to investigate the clinical characteristics of kiwi fruit allergy - concluded that the potential food allergen can severely impact young children. But the team also highlighted the increasing incidence of the allergic reaction to this tropical fruit.

Kiwi fruit was first introduced into the UK diet in the late 1960s, and consumption has increased steadily since then, with over 31,000 tonnes of the fruit imported into the UK alone in 2002.

According to the researchers, in the 1970s very few allergies to kiwi fruit were reported but reactions were increasingly reported in the 1980s, predominantly in adults. It was not until the 1990s that the kiwi fruit allergy was more commonly reported in children and young infants.

Dr Jane Lucas, a paediatrician and clinical research fellow at the University of Southampton explained to FoodNavigator.com that having completed the clinical slice of the research, in the next phase of the study ?funded also by the Food Standards Agency - the team will now try to understand why children and adults react differently to the fruit.

We are currently undergoing trials in the laboratory to work out the impact of the kiwi proteins on adults and children. We have over 100 blood samples to analyse,?/I> said Dr. Lucas. This next phase is due for completion in 18 months time.

About 300 people took part in the first phase of the study by completing a self-administered postal questionnaire. Those who reported symptoms suggesting they were allergic to the fruit were invited to undergo clinical investigation of their reported symptoms.

A total of 45 people over the age of six years took part in this phase of the research, selected primarily by their availability and motivation to attend the research centre. "The study confirmed a definite allergy to kiwi fruit in over half of these patients," reported the researchers, whose findings are published in the July issue of Clinical and Experimental Allergy.

The age of patients at the time of their first reaction ranged from four months to 71 years, with a considerable 13 per cent reacting below the age of five years. Nearly three quarters of children of 5 years or less on the study had reacted on their first known exposure to the fruit in comparison with only a fifth of adults.

The timing and severity of reactions was also examined. Sixty four per cent of all subjects reported suffering symptoms in under five minutes. Reactions included tingling and sore mouth; swelling of the lips, tongue and face; rash; vomiting and abdominal pain; and, in the most severe cases, breathing difficulties, wheezing and collapse.

The most common symptoms were unpleasant itching and soreness of the mouth, with the most common severe symptom being wheezing. Severe symptoms were most likely to occur in young children. In addition, over a third of those who initially suffered a mild reaction subsequently had moderate or severe symptoms.

The researchers at Southampton were careful to point out that their study has limitations, not least because all those taking part were self-selected volunteers who contacted the study with suspected kiwi fruit allergy.

"This may explain the greater number of adult females taking part, as well as a fairly high percentage of subjects with severe symptoms," write the scientists.

Tough new rules in Europe on food allergen labelling will come into force later this year. Directive 2003/89/EC, amending Directive 2000/13, means that manufacturers will have to list all sub-ingredients of compound ingredients, and so allergens cannot be 'hidden'. But kiwi fails to fall into the list of potential allergens. "They slipped through the net when the proposals were aired," Dr. Lucas commented.


Kiwi Extract

l          Extract of the tropical kiwi fruit. Natural additive. Kiwifruit is high in vitamin C and a good source of fiber and potassium. Kiwifruit also contain a protein called Actinidin. It is an excellent source of magnesium, vitamin E, and a potent source of antioxidants and amino acids. Kiwifruits is cholesterol free with virtually no fat. Kiwifruit was also found to deliver more folic acid, copper, pantothenic acid, calcium, iron, vitamin B6, phosphorous and vitamin A than most other fruits.

l          Conditioning agents that help leave hair with good sheen, manageability and improved flyaway control. Imparts softness to skin. callurl('http://www.spiralhaircase.com/ingredients.html');StartAdv();


Our investigation aimed to produce and characterize a kiwi extract and to use this extract to investigate a possible cross-reactivity with birch pollen. Kiwi was extracted in two buffers: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and borate-buffered saline (BBS).


Extraction in BBS produced a double amount of protein, and a more stabile extract. Tandem crossed-immunoelectrophoresis showed that the BBS and PBS extracts had several common, but also a few individual, proteins. The mixture of both extracts was assumed to represent the most complete allergen extract.


The allergenic properties of the kiwi extract were investigated by immunoblotting (IB), RAST, and histamine-release (HR) test in 15 birch-pollen-allergic patients (eight of them with clinical kiwi allergy) and one with clinical monoallergy to kiwi.


All eight birch-pollen-allergic patients with kiwi allergy and the kiwi-monoallergic patient were positive in kiwi IB binding most frequently to proteins of 10-12 and 20-25 kDa. With our extract, RAST was positive in four kiwi-allergic and one non-kiwi-allergic patient, whereas the HR test was positive in five kiwi-allergic patients and negative in all non-kiwi-allergic patients. RAST and IB inhibition demonstrated cross-reactivity between birch-pollen and kiwi allergens due to a 10-12 kDa protein. In conclusion, a kiwi extract with allergenic properties was produced, and, by the methods used, cross-reactivity was demonstrated between birch-pollen and kiwi allergens.


The same properties can be found in Kiwi (Actitinidia chinensis). Kiwi extract
has significant effect on inhibiting tyrosine and hyaluronidase.
The combination of Sophora flavescens and Kiwi (Actitinidia chinensis) can
solve the skin problems caused by scars, inhibit the generation of melanin and
prevent scar tissue from forming unpleasant color.


Background: Allergy to kiwi fruit is being increasingly reported, but it has never been evaluated by means of a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) study. Objective: We sought to assess kiwi allergy on the basis of a DBPCFC and identify the patterns of allergen recognition in sensitized patients from a birch-free area. Methods: Forty-three patients with allergy symptoms who were sensitized to kiwi were evaluated by means of clinical history, skin tests, IgE determinations, and DBPCFCs.

The pattern of allergen recognition was assessed by means of IgE immunoblotting. Sequence analysis of IgE-binding bands was performed by using Edman degradation.


Results: DBPCFCs were performed in 33 patients; 4 patients had experienced severe anaphylaxis, and 6 patients declined informed consent. DBPCFC results were positive in 23 patients and negative in 10 patients. The most frequent clinical manifestation was oral allergy syndrome. Twenty-one percent of the patients were not allergic to pollen. Forty-six percent of patients experienced systemic symptoms, and this happened with higher frequency in patients not allergic to pollen (100%).


Twenty-eight percent of the patients were sensitized to latex. The IgE-binding bands in kiwi extract more frequently recognized by patient sera were those of 30, 24, 66, and 12 kd, and they could not be associated with any pattern of kiwi-induced allergic reactions. Conclusion: The results provide evidence that kiwi allergy is not a homogeneous disorder because several clinical subgroups can be established. No definite allergen-recognition pattern was associated with the type of allergic reactions to kiwi. One of 5 patients with kiwi allergy was not allergic to pollen, and these patients had the highest risk of systemic reactions to kiwi.




l          kiwi fruit extract may help atopic dermatitis

Methods: In all, 51 patients with active AD of moderate severity (age 19-65 years) were enrolled and treated for 42 days with either oral KE or placebo (control). Patients took two capsules once a day. Moderate severity was defined by a physician's global assessment score of 3 and minimum body surface area of 10%. Patients were stabilized with a topical steroid until day 14. Topical steroid use was disallowed for the last 28d ays.Blood and urine were collected at screen days 1, 14, and 42 for urinalysis, biochemistry, and hematology profiles. Measurements of IgE and C-reactive protein were collected at days 1, 14, and 42. Clinical signs and symptoms were measured at study days 1, 14, 28, and 42.

Results: Of patients, 90% (46) completed the trial. Of the 5 patients who discontinued early, one discontinued because of an AD flare. No patient was discontinued secondary to other adverse events. An interim efficacy analysis conducted when the first 17 patients completed the trial (17 intent to treat and 14 per protocol) showed no significant difference between cohorts in the primary endpoint. Strong trends were detected in the active treatment group for the secondary end points: induration and erythema (n = 9, P = .09 and P = .13, respectively).

Conclusions: In a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of 51 adults with active AD of moderate severity, preliminary evidence shows treatment with KE may improve signs and symptoms of the disease.


The FDA has classified kiwi fruit as excellent source of Vitamin C. However, Kiwi has many other health benefits including anti-cancer activity and general immune system and eye health support, as well as the regulation of blood sugar levels.


Kiwi Extract Kiwi is a rich source of Alpha Linolenic Acids which help maintain moisture. ocopherol Acetate (vitamin E) Anti-oxidant, UV Protector and skin moisturizer Complete


Skin testing with fresh kiwi is the most common clinical investigation reported , the ain limitation being that skin testing with fresh fruit lacks standardization. Some authors have produced an extract of kiwi pulp or of fruit skin for skin testing, and others have used commercially available skin test solutions. Prick to prick with fresh kiwi or skin testing with home-made kiwi extract was positive in reports of all subjects in whom kiwi allergy was suspected. Commercial skin test extracts are significantly less sensitive.


In a study subjects with kiwi allergy, only 40% of subjects had positive skin reactions to one commercial extract, and 28% to another make of skin test solution; all subjects had positive reactions when tested by prick to prick with fresh kiwi Although highly sensitive, the specificity of fresh kiwi fruit for skin testing appears poor in subjects allergic to cross-reacting pollens or latex. Gall et al.s study included seven controls allergic to birch

pollen but not kiwi fruit, all of whom had positive skin test responses to fresh kiwi fruit.


Similarly, two latex allergic individuals with no symptoms on eating kiwi fruit have been reported to have positive skin reactions to fresh kiwi and a commercial skin test extract. Beezhold described 47 latex allergic individuals, eight of whom had positive skin tests with fresh kiwi, but only one had symptoms to kiwi fruit.


The converse also occurs: asymptomatic sensitization to latex may be as high as 86% in fruit allergic patients, but only 11% suffer clinically relevant latex allergy. Screening subjects with fruit allergy by skin test or measuring foodspecific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels to other fruits that might share cross-reactive antigens results in an unacceptable number of false-positive reactions. However, when combined with a detailed symptom history of oral allergy syndrome, skin prick testing with fresh apple in pollen allergic subjects has showed a good positive predictive value of over 90% .


The use of purified fruit allergens in diagnostic tests could improve their specificity, but the major allergens responsible for kiwi fruit remains controversial.

The relevance of asymptomatic sensitivity to cross-reacting allergens remains unclear, and continued follow-up of such subjects is required to clarify the significance In conflict with Gall et al.s study, other groups have found kiwi skin tests to be highly specific, with negative skin tests in all pollen allergic, mite allergic and atopicsubjects. There are therefore discrepancies in the literature concerning the specificity of kiwi fruit skin tests in atopic groups.


The negative predictive value in non-atopic controls approaches 100%

Prick to prick testing with fresh kiwi is simple and sensitive, but as with all skin test procedures there is a small risk of reaction. A 57-year-old man who had suffered two anaphylactic reactions when eating kiwi, had a severe systemic reaction on skin testing  performed at home by his daughter.

The role of measuring specific IgE to confirm kiwi fruit allergy is less clear (Table 1). Although positive in some case reports of patients with kiwi  allergy, other authors have found it unhelpful. In his study of 22 subjects with kiwi fruit allergy, Gall found that although he was able to detect specific IgE in all subjects with severe symptoms, the results were negative in subjects with mild local symptoms.


It is possible that his subjects with oral allergy syndrome had IgE confined to the oral mucosa with no detectable circulating specific IgE, or were allergic to a labile allergen not present in the specific IgE kit. However, other studies have found that at least some subjects with oral allergy syndrome have detectable circulating IgE to kiwi fruit

Reports of sensitivity of measuring IgE vary between 13% to over 70%. Variation in sensitivity may reflect the different kiwi allergic populations being studied, and the different techniques used to measure specific IgE, with some groups using the CAP system, but others using home-made allergen discs.


The specificity of in vitro tests is also unclear. Using the CAP method to detect specific IgE to kiwi in 136 latex allergic patients, Breler et al. (31) found relatively high specificity (83%). Likewise, Gall et al. (9) found no specific IgE to kiwi fruit in non-kiwi allergic controls with birch pollen allergy, despite having positive skin tests with fresh kiwi fruit.

This is in contrast to reports of four of four subjects with no symptoms to kiwi, but symptoms of birch pollen allergy, who had detectable IgE to kiwi fruit and a case report of two subjects with latex allergy who had positive RAST to kiwi despite being asymptomaticIt has been suggested that each individual has a threshold for antibirch

pollen titres to cause oral allergy intolerance with apple and indeed several studies have demonstrated higher specific birch pollenspecific IgE or larger skin test reactions in subjects with oral allergy syndrome .


The present information about the role of clinical investigations in kiwi allergy is therefore confusing and requires further evaluation.



Food challenges

Double-blind food challenges (DBFC) are the gold standard for confirming food allergy, but blinded food challenges have rarely been used in the context of oral allergy syndrome, and further work is required to evaluate their role.


Only one group has published (in abstract) DBFC data concerning kiwi fruit (22). In their study subjects, DBFC confirmed allergy to kiwi in only 66%, despite all subjects reporting symptoms and all having positive skin tests. Most of their subjects had oral allergy syndrome, and the results may reflect the difficulty of performing challenges in a group who by definition have predominantly subjective symptoms.


There is also evidence that such subjects may only have reactions to the cross-reacting fruit during the pollen season. In a case series of patients reporting mostly oral allergy symptoms to melon, DBFC confirmed only 68% of 25 positive open challenges. All subjects with negative blind food challenges were again given an open provocation, all of which were negative.



Management of kiwi fruit allergy

As with other food allergies, avoidance of kiwi fruit is the mainstay of treatment, with rescue therapy determined by the severity of reactions. Evidence based data on the management of fruit allergy are lacking, so advice varies from just avoiding the fruit, to restrictive diets of an entire food group. In subjects with a diagnosis of IgE mediated fruit allergy, SPT and measurement of specific IgE to known cross-reacting fruits will result in excessive positive tests results in the absence of clinical symptoms.  Unnecessary food restriction may occur if incompletely validated allergy test systems are used as a basis for prescribing elimination diets.

This stance needs to be balanced against the lack of information about the long-term outcome of subjects with asymptomatic sensitization in the absence of clinical allergy. Successful treatment of OAS to fennel, cucumber, melon and apple by pollen-specific injection immunotherapy has been described



With regard to identifying major allergens, work has resulted in conflicting and confusing results(Table 2). Different studies have reported different dominant allergens. This could be due to different experimental procedures and/or differences in the study population used (e.g. genetics,differing eating habits). Pastorello studied

27 Italian subjects with kiwi fruit allergy, diagnosed by clinical history of OAS, a positive skin test, and a positive open challenge. Eighty-seven per cent of subjects also had IgE antibodies to timothy pollen, and 73% to birch pollen.


Theyidentified 12 IgE-binding proteins, one of which, a 30 kDa protein, was recognized by all of the subjects. Other allergens with molecular weights and 12 kDa appeared important either because of the large number of subjects reacting to them or for their part in the clinical crossreactivity of kiwi allergy with birch and timothy pollinosis.


A Danish study using the sera of eight subjects with pollinosis associated kiwi allergy,and one subject with isolated kiwi allergy had conflicting findings. Their one subject with kiwi fruit allergy but no pollinosis, had a band at 30 kDa and one at 18 kDa. However, none of the other subjects sera recognized the 30 kDa protein. Instead, they showed proteins in the 1012 and 2224 kDa regions to be the most common allergens in kiwi extract.


Mo llers studies found that proteins of molecular weight 43 and 67 kDa were recognized by over 50% of 22 German subjects with birch pollen allergy, five of whom also had latex, avocado or banana allergy. In addition they detected minor allergens of 13, 22 and 30 kDa. The major allergens, 43 and 67 kDa, are only slightly detected by total protein staining of the blot with Indian ink or by silver staining of the gel, indicating the low amount of these allergens in kiwi extract. On the other hand, proteins found in larger amounts in their extract, with molecular weights of 20, 23 and 26 kDa, do not represent potent allergens. Fahlbusch, using sera from nine kiwi allergic subjects, five with birch pollen allergy, reported that eight subjects recognized a 30 kDa protein. IgE-binding proteins were also seen at 23, 43 and 80 kDa.



Allergens with a wide range of molecular weights from 1267 kDa are considered responsible for the cross-reactivity between kiwi fruit and birch pollen. It has also been shown that the 43 and 67 kDa allergens in kiwi fruit cross-react with allergens from avocado, banana and latex.


Although fruit allergens in patients allergic to pollens have attracted much attention, very little is known about kiwi allergens in non-pollen allergic individuals. The allergens involved in patients allergic to fruits may differ between subjects with and without pollinosis. The IgE-binding pattern may reflect different symptom patterns. In hazelnut allergic subjects, an IgE response towards a 9 kDa protein specifically occurred in subjects with severe anaphylaxis.


Different extraction methods may account for some of the discrepancy between major allergens identified by different groups (Table 2). Voitenko used two different extraction procedures for kiwi fruit, producing similar protein profiles in SDSPAGE but a different antigen profile by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. They therefore used a mixture of both extracts in an attempt to provide a more complete allergen extract. The same group also found protein patterns varied according to whether reducing or non-reducing running conditions were applied during electrophoresis. When non-reducing conditions wereused the 30-kDa band of the BBS kiwi extract split into two bands: a weak band corresponding to 30 kDa, and a stronger 27 kDa band.


The groups working on kiwi fruit allergens have reported using different gels, blockers, dilutions of sera and probing methods. However, the precise methodology is unclear in some reports. This emphasizes the need for very clear reporting of laboratory techniques by authors working in this field and, where appropriate, a need for standardization of techniques between groups working in the same field.


So far, three kiwi allergens have been isolated and characterized : Act c 1 (30 kDa),  Act c 2 (43 kDa) and a thaumatin-like allergen (24 kDa). Act c 1 is an unglycosylated thiol protease with a mean isoelectric point of 3.5. The protein has been partially sequenced and comparison with the Swiss Protein bank showed that this was actinidin.


The structure of actinidin has been described. Actinidin is secreted in an inactive form as actininidin, which has a molecular weight of 39 kDa. It has been suggested that actinidin might only express its allergenicity after cleavage of the pro-sequence. Bromelain (from pineapple) and papain (from papaya) are also thiol proteases, with similar modes of action.


Although amino acid composition, isoelectric points and molecular weights differ, there are many structural similarities, as demonstrated for actinidin and papain in which polypeptide backbones are extremely similar. However, only a very weak cross-reactivity has been found between these thiol proteinases


Act c 2 has also been N-terminal sequenced and the isoelectric point determined to be 6.9. The quantity of Act c 2 as a percentage of the total protein in kiwi fruit is estimated to be as low as 0.1%. A recent study has suggested that a protein with a molecular weight of 24 kDa and isoelectric point of approximately 9.4 is a major allergen. N-terminal amino acid sequencing has shown that this protein corresponds to thaumatin-like protein.



Kiwi allergens associated with pollen allergy

The clinical association of pollinosis with allergy to fresh fruit including kiwi is  well-recognized. Initial respiratory sensitization results in IgE antibodies to pollen proteins which are homologous to those found in some fruits or vegetables. For example, antigens in birch pollen and apples share allergenic epitopes leading tocross-reactivity that may cause clinical symptoms of OAS when a birch pollen allergic subject eats an apple


Many allergens in kiwi fruit are readily digested by simulated gastric fluid, and per oral sensitization is unlikely to these unstable allergens. However, pre-sensitization by inhaling birch pollen allergens will predispose to allergic symptoms to kiwi fruit. The lability of the kiwi allergens may explain why allergic reactions are restricted to the oral cavity (OAS) in many patients with pollen allergy.many patients with pollen allergy. The allergenic components of kiwi fruit that cross-react with allergens from timothy and birch pollen have been characterized. Kiwi allergens and 22 kDa were completely inhibited by timothy grass extract grass pollen, and kiwi allergens with mw and 14 kDa were completely inhibited by birch pollen, suggesting complete identity between the relevant kiwi and pollen allergens.


Other kiwi aller-Lucaset al.gens, for example the 30 kDa allergen (actinidin,Act c 1), were only partially inhibited, suggesting much weaker cross-reactivity. In another study (12), cross-reactivity between birch pollen and kiwi allergens was partly explained by a protein of 1012 kDa, however, the inhibition was poorly expressed in only half the subjects, perhaps suggesting that only a minor allergen was involved in the cross-reactivity. Recently, complementary DNA coding for the Betv1 homologous allergens from apple Mal d 1 , celery (Api g 1) (50) and carrot (Dau c 1) were isolated and shown to share an average sequence identity of approximately 45% with Bet v 1.


It has been shown that T cells and T cell clones with specificity for Mal d 1 cross-react

with the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 . Immunization of rhesus monkeys with recombinant birch pollen allergens rBet v 1 and rBet v 2 induced immediate-type skin reactions to food containing Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 related allergens. Recombinant allergens from kiwi are not yet available.


It remains uncertain whether pollinosis precedes food allergy in oral allergy syndrome. Most of the cross-reacting allergens are more abundant in the pollen than in fruits, giving support to the hypothesis that OAS is caused by a primary sensitization to pollen allergens. In a study of adults with OAS a combination of recombinant and natural pollen extracts almost completely inhibited IgE binding to plant extracts, whereas IgE reactivity to pollen allergens was poorly inhibited by recombinant plant food allergens. Based on an assumption that the primary sensitizing molecule will carry most if not all the relevant IgE epitopes. will have less-reactive epitopes, the authors concluded that the pollen allergens are responsible for the elicitation and maintenance of OAS.



Future directions

Although kiwi fruit allergy appears to be increasing in frequency, systematically collected clinical information remains sparse. A full characterization of the allergy is required, describing the clinical features occurring in isolated allergy, with latex-associated allergy, and with latexfruit syndrome.


The IgE binding patterns in each of these clinical groups will then need evaluation. The identification of epitopes specific for kiwi fruit might prove useful to enhance the diagnostic value of skin prick tests and RASTs. Basic information including natural history of subjects with kiwi allergy is required, along with followup information of subjects with skin test positivity in the absence of clinical symptoms.


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