藤黃果.Garcinia Cambogia 


Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), is the active ingredient extracted from the rind of a little pumpkin-like fruit, Garcinia cambogia, from India and Southeast Asia. Dietary supplements and a wide variety of weight loss formulas, contain Garcinia extract to inhibit fat production and suppress appetite. A number of products include extracts (about 50% HCA) under the brand names Citrin (Sabinsa) and CitriMax (InterHealth) and a new one called Regulator is a 98% pure potassium HCA from a small Irish supplement company.


Garcinia cambogia, also known as malabar tamarind and brindle berry, is a relatively small purple fruit that contains a chemical compound called Hydroxycitric acid (HCA). HCA is much like a derivative of the same citric acid that can be found in many other citric fruits whose chemical make up is only slightly different. Studies indicate that HCA may assist in weight loss because of its ability to regulate metabolism.


Specifically, hydroxycitric acid is a competitive inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate. In the cytosol, ATP citrate lyase catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (commonly referred to as acetyl CoA). Acetyl CoA is required for the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides.


Oxaloacetate may enter the gluconeogenic pathway, which can lead to the production of glucose and glycogen. Many researchers and experts assert that the putative antiobesity effect of hydroxycitric acid is due to suppression of fatty acid and fat synthesis. Additionally, hydroxycitric acid is believed to suppress food intake via an anorectic effect, which also supports the belief that HCA may assist in weight loss


 Other Names: Brindal Berry, Gorikapuli, HCA, Hydroxycitric acid, Malabar Tamarind



HCA can inhibit an enzyme in cells, citrate lyase, which is needed for the conversion of carbohydrates into fat. In the cell, carbohydrates are broken down into citrate compounds, which are then converted (by citrate lyase) into another compound; acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) – the metabolic building block for fat synthesis. By blocking the conversion of citrate into acetyl-CoA, HCA can suppress fat synthesis. Acetyl CoA is further converted into malonyl CoA, a compound which may block the actions of carnitine acyltransferase in shuttling fatty acids into the mitochondria to be burned. It is important to note, however, that the citrate lyase enzyme, is only significantly active under conditions of carbohydrate overconsumption. In others words, unless you’re eating a lot of carbohydrate-type foods (bagels, pasta, potatoes), and overloading your carbohydrate storage capacity (muscle and liver glycogen stores) there is no significant conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids anyway (and HCA may not work for you). If, however, you’re chowing down on low-fat high-carb foods at every meal, then your glycogen stores will be over-flowing and your citrate lyase enzymes are going to be working over time converting those excess carbs to fat. OK, so now that you’ve blocked the fat production, you have to do something with those excess carbs. They can’t be stored as glycogen because those stores in liver and muscle are already full, so it is thought that the body disposes of them by increasing carbohydrate oxidation (burning them). As a result of these fully loaded glycogen stores, some researchers have suggested that a "side effect" of HCA supplementation may be a suppression of appetite – which would reduce food intake and promote weight loss.



Studies suggest that garcinia cambogia may assist in weight loss for the following reasons: HCA appears to block the conversion of sugars and starches into fats, that this, HCA is believed to help inhibit fat production.HCA may suppress appetite by raising levels of certain brain chemicals such as serotonin, a key stimulator of appetite.However, there is no concrete evidence that supports the conclusion that garcinia cambogia can in fact cause weight loss. However, in a study of 60 overweight participants who took the supplement for 2 months, HCA appeared to help participants lose weight when compared with other study participants who were given a placebo.



In recent years, Garcinia cambogia has been promoted for weight loss due to various possible effects it may have on the body. First, it is believed to interfere with an enzyme needed to store fat, possibly causing more fat from foods to be eliminated from the body. In addition, Garcinia cambogia may cause the body to use existing fat stores for energy during prolonged exercise. Ordinarily, carbohydrates are used before fats during exercise. In animal studies, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major component of Garcinia cambogia, also seemed to reduce appetite by raising the amount of serotonin in the body. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter (a chemical that carries messages from nerve cells to other cells) that is thought to affect appetite control. In clinical studies of humans, however, individuals who took Garcinia cambogia while following a weight-reduction diet lost no more weight, on average, than members of a control group who followed the same diet without taking a supplement. Other human studies have had mixed results on appetite reduction; some showed little or no effect, while others reported a 15% to 30% decrease in food intake. More studies are needed to prove or disprove the effectiveness of Garcinia cambogia in weight control.




 Scientific Support

Animal studies have shown that hydroxycitrate decreases weight gain – primarily by suppressing appetite and reducing food intake. At least one rat study has also shown a loss of body weight and reduced fat mass due to an 11% increase in daily energy expenditure. HCA appears to be effective in both lean and obese rats, where it can reduce food intake, body weight, body fat accumulation, fat cell size, and serum triglycerides. Studies of HCA supplementation in humans have been equivocal. In some studies, of HCA per day led to a doubling or tripling of weight loss compared to placebo groups. Just last year, however, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published a study showing no effect of Garcinia cambogia on weight loss in overweight men and women. In the study, a commercially available product and weight loss plan was used (Thermogenic Ultra Lean – Herbal weight loss plan with Garcinia cambogia – from Great American Nutrition, Salt Lake City, Utah). A total dose of  of HCA per day for 12 weeks did not augment weight loss compared to the placebo group. The JAMA study has been criticized by pro-HCA camps on a number of criteria including the restrictive nature of the diet (low energy – 1210 kcal per day), the high fiber content (which decreases absorption of HCA) and the failure to assess HCA absorption (to see if it actually got into the cells where it becomes active). In defense of the study, however, is the authors’ assertion that they wanted to test the compound under conditions in which people might normally try to lose weight (like a low calorie diet) – not exactly a bad idea. They also noted that the possibility for HCA to be effective in blocking fat synthesis may be more evident when people "fall-off" their diets or relapse and start consuming lots of high carbohydrate foods. The authors of the JAMA study concluded that their results do not support a role for Garcinia cambogia in facilitating weight loss beyond the effects observed with a low calorie high fiber diet. Evidence from animal studies and human trials of high carbohydrate diets, however, suggest otherwise – and support the use of HCA for inhibiting fat synthesis and reducing body weight. Additionally, in those individuals consuming a normal diet, HCA may provide some measure of appetite suppression – an effect which may be expected to curtail food cravings and help to support weight maintenance. For example, one small study indicated that subjects taking HCA were better able to adhere to a weight loss diet than subjects taking a placebo. An unpublished study from the makers of the “Regulator” brand of HCA showed an effect on suppressing appetite and reducing body weight (4-12 lbs. greater than placebo). The study looked at 50 subjects who consumed 1.5-6 grams of the HCA supplement daily for one month. Another study used a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized, crossover study design to investigate whether 3 days of HCA supplementation (3 grams/day) had any influence on metabolic parameters with or without moderately intense exercise (40-60% VO2max). The study examined 10 sedentary men across 4 lab visits (consuming a 30-35% fat diet) and found no significant differences for measures of fat/carbohydrate oxidation (respiratory quotient) or other aspects of metabolism.



There are no serious adverse side effects associated with intake of Garcinia cambogia or hydroxycitric acid supplements aside form some minor gastrointestinal distress induced by high doses.



For weight loss, regular intake of Garcinia cambogia and HCA is supported by animal studies (and high carbohydrate diets), where it reduces food intake and body fat accumulation. Some data from human trials support the effectiveness of HCA for weight control in humans, but here the data is not particularly strong. And much more research is needed to confirm the degree of weight loss that can be expected from regular HCA supplementation. Given the apparent safety profile of Garcinia/HCA supplements and the clear difficulty associated with maintaining a reduced body weight following weight loss, HCA may be most effective as an aid to preventing weight re-gain – rather than as an approach to stimulating significant fat loss (which is best achieved by lifestyle modifications in diet, behavior and exercise patterns). Those individuals who have succeeded in losing body weight and fat mass (not an easy task) may be better able to adhere to their new diet and maintain their new lower body weight more effectively with the help of HCA dietary supplements.



Typical doses associated with suppression of appetite and reductions in body weight are 750-1500 mg of Garcinia cambogia, (standardized for at least 50% HCA) taken in 2-3 divided doses about 30-60 minutes before eating. Because of the variation in hydroxycitric acid content between various brands of Garcinia cambogia extract, it is recommended to choose a brand which is standardized to a high level of HCA.


A revolutionary approach to weight management

Citrin is Sabinsa’s trademarked name for an unique calcium salt of (-) hydroxycitric acid ((-) HCA), an effective weight loss phytonutrient which Sabinsa Corporation was the first to standardize. To enable versatile applications of (-) hydroxycitric acid in functional food products and include the essential health benefits of the mineral potassium, Sabinsa later developed (-) hydroxycitric acid in a soluble form, as the potassium salt Citrin®K. Sabinsa Corporation introduced three new soluble salt forms of (-) hydroxycitric acid in 1998. Citrin®Mg combines the weight loss effects of (-) hydroxycitric acid with the health benefits of magnesium, an essential mineral nutrient for metabolic functions and energy release mechanisms in the body. To provide essential mineral combinations nested in a weight control product, Sabinsa introduced Citrin®Mg/K and Citrin® Ca/K. All these multi-functional products have potential applications as effective nutritional supplements, particularly in sports nutrition.


Citrin K :
A patented water soluble product

Sabinsa Corporation was assigned a patent (U.S. Patent# 5,783,603), for CitrinK in July 1998. The patent titled "Potassium hydroxycitrate for the suppression of appetite and induction of weight loss" provides methods of appetite suppression, inhibiting cytoplasmic citrate lyase, and increasing fat metabolism in obese subjects, using the potassium salt of hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia fruit.

CitrinK is a water soluble product, available as a standardized powdered extract or a standardized liquid.



Garcinia cambogia:
In the news in November 1998

The November 11, 1998 issue of JAMA published an article, based on a single study in which the authors stated that their observations "do not support a role as currently prescribed for the widely used herb G.cambogia as a facilitator of weight loss."


Aside from this strong statement, which opposes the positive results reported in several earlier clinical studies, the design of the trial indicates that the authors took little advantage of previously reported experience involving (-) HCA. In their own pre-clinical studies (FASEB J. 1998) they report a prerequisite that suggests for (-) HCA to effectively inhibit fat formation and reduce body weight it should be administrated with a simple carbohydrate rich (lipogenic) diet. The study in question coadministered (-) HCA with a high fiber diet.


In this case, results may be compromised by a well-recognized property of high-fiber diets- questionable absorption of many nutrients and micronutrients. This issue becomes critical with HCA, since its reported efficacy in inhibiting the intracellular enzyme ATP citrate lyase depends entirely on the presence of HCA inside the target cell.


In view of the above discussed shortcomings of the study, the statement on (-) HCA’s lack of efficacy is unsupported, particularly in the absence of proof that HCA was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Another significant aspect is the fact that HCA enables weight management through appetite control, reduced food intake and inhibition of fat synthesis.



Clinical Studies with Citrin?

Citrin? has been proven to be a safe and effective weight loss supplement which suppresses the appetite and inhibits fat synthesis. Several studies have been conducted on Citrin? as well as supplements containing Citrin? in order to evaluate its efficiency and tolerability.

Conte3 pioneered weight loss studies. In 1993 he tested the non-prescription weight loss alternative Lipodex-2 (containing HCA and a Chromium supplement) on 50 obese (15 - 45% overweight) volunteers. As in other studies, the subjects were instructed to eat a low-fat, smart substitution diet and to exercise. Significant weight loss was observed for those patients taking Lipodex-2 in addition to appetite suppression and increased energy levels. The average weight loss per person in the 8 weeks was 11.14 lbs for the Lipodex-2 subjects compared to 4.2 lbs for those in the placebo group. Consumers of Lipodex-2 remarked about the ease and convenience of the supplement. Conte has said that the supplement is very useful in a maintenance program as well as in preventing additional weight gain.


In a 4 week study conducted by Katts and coworkers1, 200 subjects were assigned to either a "placebo" or "active" group. In addition to food, the "active" group consumed the dietary supplement Brindall Trim which contains a daily total of  L-carnitine, and  of chromium (as picolinate). No adverse effects were reported for subjects taking Brindall Trim, and it facilitated the loss of body fat (average loss of body fat: -1.40 lbs "placebo" group, -2.84 lbs "active" group) when combined with a low-fat diet and increased physical activity.


Thom2 conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study on 60 patients for a period of 8 weeks. Patients were on a low-fat diet, exercised, and either took Citrisan? (HCA supplied as Citrin?) or an identical placebo three times a day . Weight reductions were significant. The mean weight reduction in the HCA group (30 patients) was 14.11 lbs compared to 8.37 lbs for the placebo group. Approximately 87% of weight loss in the HCA group was due to fat loss compared to 80% for the placebo group. Statistically significant reductions in favor of the HCA group were obtained for blood pressure, total cholesterol, and hip and waist circumferences. Appetite scores were significantly reduced for the HCA group, but not for the placebo group.

An 8 week, open-field, physician controlled, clinical evaluation5 of Citrin? was conducted with ambulatory patients ranging in age from 20 to 64. The body weight loss during the 8 week test period was significant and independent of either gender or age. The mean weight values for women and men decreased after 4 weeks and 8 weeks as shown in Figure 1


Diminished appetite perception and elevated vitality were observed for both men and women; however, women had significantly higher levels for both characteristics. Significant reductions were seen in blood levels of triglycerides for the entire sample population. However, the very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly lowered in the population according to age. VLDL was lowered in participants ranging in age from 51-64, while LDL was lowered in 20 to 40 year olds. The high density lipoproteins (HDL) were significantly increased in all groups combined after 8 weeks of Citrin? from a mean value of 47.4 mg/dL to a mean value of . Blood glucose levels decreased for all but not significantly. The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) significantly declined in men after the 8 week treatment. It also declined in women but not significantly. In terms of age, the CHD risk declined in all age groups but significantly for those ages 51-64. A trend in lowering systolic blood pressure was observed for the entire sample population.



A long-term study (8 to 36 months) assessing some of the same characteristics was also performed5. The long term use of Citrin? resulted in significant weight reduction from a mean value of 157.8 lbs to 145.5 lbs. The blood biochemistry results showed improvement in lipid profiles, although these changes were not statistically significant, as shown in Table 1.




Citrin - Glucose and Glycogen

Glucose is the fuel of choice for the brain and also an essential energy source for the muscles. Biologically speaking, securing an adequate supply of glucose is a basic requirement for our daily performance, if not for our existence.

Because blood glucose levels are so critical, stores of readily available glucose are found in organs which have particularly high energy requirements. Nutrition is the key in supplying carbohydrates and other nutrients from which glucose can be manufactured. Nutrition also supplies natural compounds which can improve glucose metabolism by decreasing the amount of body lipids while increasing glycogen storage in the liver.


Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a well researched natural compound that is known to improve glucose metabolism. This compound may also help in replenishing glycogen levels, particularly in disease conditions like diabetes, or conditions depleting glycogen stores, as in the course of intense training of athletes. From literature data, it is known that HCA can inhibit citrate lyase, a key enzyme required for fatty acid production. This enzyme may possibly divert glucose from being converted to fatty acids and instead convert it into its storage form - glycogen.


In experiments carried out with laboratory animals at the Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Kyoto University, Faculty of Agriculture, Japan, rodents were fed with 5 mg of HCA for three days. Th. results suggested that mice fed with HCA as compared to the control animals benefited with higher content of glycogen in the muscles. In the endurance test, those mice that were fed with HCA could swim significantly longer than the control group.

In a clinical weight-loss study involving Citrin® , individuals taking three times a day for four weeks, reported a significant increase in physical energy levels as compared to their energy levels at the onset of the study. These subjective observations of increased energy levels should be further studied since they may reflect, or be a result of, increased levels of glycogen stores in the body.


Additionally, two recent studies involving Sabinsa’s newest (-)HCA salt have provided encouraging results. The importance of HCA availability in the cytosol of a target cell to inhibit lipid synthesis was recently confirmed in an in vitro study by researchers at Northwestern University Medical School in an in vivo experimental model of urinary stone prevention. In this study, HCA administered orally to rats increased citraturia, which can be the result of inhibition of ATP citrate lyase. The compound used in this study was Citrin® Mg/K.



Rattan the yellow fruit reduce weight result

Appear on the market recently many claim increasing a rattan a yellow fruit reduces weight a product, exactly what is a rattan yellow fruit?What function does it have?


In fact rattan the yellow fruit has already had ever appeared in manily reduce weight the product by several years, just at the beginning the name isn't a rattan yellow fruit, but be called HCA, or the water match a lemon sour.In fact both are similar things, just through several years, the operator is appeared on market with another different name again, letting our consumer think is a similar thing.After the beer leaven merchandise is best-selling after, bring about another the weight reduction composition"rattan yellow fruit" of unrest to register on the stage recently in Japan, let everyone think is a different thing.


Rattan yellow fruit(the Garcinia Cambogia) is come from a category of India orange of fruit, the rattan extracts in the yellow fruit of HCA composition, can obstruct the carbohydrate conversion as fat, can also promote fat burnable, expel a body inside surplus of fat, take HCA 30 minutes before having a meal, can reach the best effect.In addition, the HCA still has satisfied foot feeling of increment, reaching to reducing appetite and reduce the result of[with] hungry feeling.


The new generation reduces weight a product

The earlier period reduces weight a product mostly lie in how reduce food to want or calories of take top put forth effort, but, this kind of method usually can't reach success, in the meantime, most parts of calories outside of balanced nourishments all come from food, if didn't program and didn't reduce weight the recipe concert patiently in the nutritionist's professional meal calories under, usually allow of no not only easily and successfully, will can't also take other nourishment elements and long-term of the amount of foot down to influence to the health.Therefore, the new generation reduces weight the reality that the product must have regard for this aspect, and toward turn down the human body direction of calories absorption or occurrence effort, the in order to prevent occurrence turns down to take a meal but nourishment not the side effect of the Jun Heng, the so-called HCA belongs to the product of this aspect.


1.     Help the maintenance digest way function

2.     Change the germ cluster ecosystem

3.     Have a bowel movement smoothly

4.     Promote metabolism

5.     Reduce tired feeling

6.     Keep and improve looks


The HCA(the Hydroxy Citric Acid) comes from a kind of tropical fruit that produces south second India at first, being called to withdraw in the Garcinia Cambogia of, this is the rattan that we know yellow fruit, according to American many related clinical researches made, it can reduce the fatty acids formation, turning down appetite, reducing fat born with store up, there is a kind of merchandise"Citrimax" that populars very much in the American health food boundary, is a HCA product.

Function principle

The function principle of the cane yellow fruit HCA, is at the glucose of the human body turn into fat, repress enzyme of an ATP Citrate lyase, can't make the fatty acids synthesize, and repress the sugar solution(glycolysis) function to carry on, therefore reduce the absorption of the energy inside the body.


Usually, if this product the simplicity reduces the calories absorption with the HCA, result also will not show Zhu very much, and is the product that belongs to a kind of to match sex, needing to be taken patiently then would be effective.Therefore, usually the product will match some L-carnitines that have the Ran fat result with raising the chromiums elements of the insulin exploitation degree, then would strengthen effect.Because the L-carnitine(the meat is sour) meeting increases a grain of gland body's exploitation toward fatty acids, having the Ran fat effect, the Da goes together with HCA to use result very good, and the chromium element(chrome), then can increase sugar exploitation, accelerate the metabolism of the triglyceride, and reduce the blood fat density, abroad the product of the sale, most likely is this kind of three unite as one of product


HCA the most main function is "stop the formation of the fat, repress the basal metabolism rate that the carbohydrate absorption promotes body".If the simplicity reduces the calories absorption with the HCA, result also not very obvious, and is belong to a kind of[match sex] of product, need to be taken patiently and just would be effective, therefore, usually the product will match some have the Ran fat result of"L-carnitine(the meat is sour)"s and the chromiums(chrome) elements of the exaltation insulin exploitation degree, just would more strong its effect, because the L-carnitine(the meat is sour) will increase a grain of gland body, having the Ran fat effect for the exploitation of the fatty acids, matching HCA to use result very good, and the chromium(chrome) element, , then can increase sugar exploitation, , the metabolisms for accelerating a triglyceride, and reduce a blood fat density.

A great deal of HCA, this ingredient can repress synthesizing of fat, obstructing a glucose to synthesize fat in the body.


The structure and lemon are sour likeness, will repress the activity of enzyme ATP-Citrate lyase, obstruct a carbohydrate conversion to become a body inside surplus of fat promote fat inside the body burn, surplus of the energy convert into the liver sugar that is easy to depletion and can regulate a human body to metabolize inside the fat, will excessive don't body regard as the calories depletion drop of the nourishment ingredient turn to store in the muscle and the liver to increase with the form of the liver carbohydrate the liver and muscle store the liver carbohydrate of ability, reduce fat of manufacturing quantity if body inside the store of the liver carbohydrate increment, be a human body while exercising, can supply energy immediately, and because the blood sugar descends a creation hungry of nature respond the condition will also reduce, so have effect of repressing the appetite, make the manufacturing process of the carbohydrate and protein reduce slow produce heat, can burn fat, stimulate body of function, release fat, study a confimation, HCA can in meal after turn down above fat of 40% formation in 8-12 hours.


In the research of 60 the degrees in are fat everyday is plused by 2000 card calories mealses geniality exercise, match to use a yellow fruit of super rattan 8 equally eased 4.8 kilograms after weeks, the BMI index number reduces about 5.2%, harmful LDL cholesterol inside the body reduces about 12.8%, and the beneficial HLD cholesterol then raised 8.9%, comparing with don't the user increase triple of result.