葡萄柚子.rapefruit Seed

 Scientific Names: 

 Citrus paradisi Macfad. [Fam. Rutaceae]


 Grapefruit juice; grapefruit extracts; and grapefruit oil extract for cosmetics.



 Grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfad. [Fam. Rutaceae] is native to Jamaica but is largely cultivated in the United States. The skins of grapefruit may be yellow or pinkish and the pulp of the fruit may be yellow, pinkish, or reddish with a sharp, acidic, sweet taste and fragrance. Grapefruit is rich in vitamin C and potassium and is also a good source of folate, iron, calcium, and other minerals. The pink and red varieties are rich in beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, and lycopene, an anticancer carotenoid also found in tomatoes and watermelon. Grapefruit stimulates the appetite and is used for its digestive, antiseptic, tonic, and diuretic qualities. The fruit provides a good source of dietary fiber, as it is high in fiber and low in calories making it an ideal food to include in a sensible weight-loss diet. Grapefruits are especially high in pectin, a soluble fiber that helps lower blood cholesterol. The fruit also contains many bioflavonoids and other plant chemicals that protect against cancer and heart disease. Pink and red grapefruits are high in lycopene, an antioxidant associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. A 6-year Harvard study involving 48,000 doctors and other health professionals has linked 10 servings of lycopene-rich foods a week with a 50 percent reduction in prostate cancer.

Other protective plant chemicals found in grapefruits include phenolic acid, which inhibits the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines; limonoids, terpenes, and monoterpenes, which induce the production of enzymes that help prevent cancer; and bioflavonoids, which inhibit the action of hormones that promote tumor growth. Some people with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus nephritis, and other inflammatory disorders report that eating grapefruit daily seems to alleviate their symptoms, attributed to compounds that block inflammatory prostaglandins. Grapefruit oil and seed extracts are also used in cosmetic formulations as natural preservatives.

     Grapefruit Seed Extract as an Excellent Preservative:

Non-published studies and testimonials report grapefruit-seed extract to be effective against more than 800 bacterial and viral strains, 100 strains of fungus, and a large number of single and multicelled parasites. A recent scientific study investigated grapefruit-seed extract for antibacterial activity at varying time intervals and concentration levels and tissue toxicity at varying concentrations in an effort to determine if a concentration existed that was both microbicidal and nontoxic and in what period of time. The tests indicated that from the 1:1 through the 1:128 concentrations, grapefruit-seed extract remained toxic as well as bactericidal. However, test results indicated that at the 1:512 dilution, grapefruit-seed extract remained bactericidal, but completely nontoxic. The initial data shows grapefruit-seed extract to have antimicrobial properties against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria at dilutions found to be safe. The mechanism of grapefruit-seed extract antibacterial activity was revealed using scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that grapefruit-seed extract disrupts the bacterial membrane and liberates the cytoplasmic contents within 15 minutes after contact even at more dilute concentrations.

   Active Ingredients: 

 Grapefruit pulp contains significant levels of vitamin C; potassium, folate, calcium, and iron. The pink and red varieties also contain beta-carotene and lycopene, antioxidants that the body can convert to vitamin A. Other protective plant chemicals found in grapefruits include phenolic acid, limonoids, terpenes, monoterpenes, D-glucaric acid and flavonoids including hesperetin and naringenin. Grapefruit oil contains: nonanal, nootkatone, beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol, alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time in storage, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage. The Nutrition Information for whole grapefruits (Nutritional information per 100 g) is as follows: Water, 91%; Protein, 0.6g; Fat, 0.1g; Carbohydrates, 8g; Fiber, 0.6g and calories, 30 to 33.

 Suggested Amount: 

 Half a grapefruit provides more than 50 percent of the adult Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamin C; it also has 325mg of potassium, 25mcg (micrograms) of folate, 40mg of calcium, and l mg of iron. The pink and red varieties are high in beta-carotene, an antioxidant that the body converts to vitamin A. A cup of unsweetened grapefruit juice has 95mg of vitamin C, more than 150 percent of the RDA, and most of the other nutrients found in the fresh fruit. Grapefruit is an ideal food to include in a sensible weight-loss diet as a serving contains less than 100 calories and its high-fiber content satisfies hunger. Grapefruit oil and grapefruit seed extract are used in cream formulations as natural preservatives.

 Drug Interactions: 

 Grapefruit has serious interactions with many commonly prescribed medications and can lead to unpredictable and hazardous levels of certain important drugs. Grapefruit juice inhibits a special enzyme in the intestines that is responsible for the natural breakdown and absorption of many medications and when the action of this enzyme is blocked, the blood levels of these medications increase, which can lead to toxic side effects from the medications. Grapefruit juice research suggests that flavonoids and furanocoumarins are responsible for this effect. The following medications (and possibly others) should not be consumed with grapefruit juice unless advised by a doctor: Statins (Cholesterol Lowering Drugs): Baycol (Cerivastatin); Mevacor (Lovastatin); Lipitor (Atorvastatin); Zocor (Simvastatin). Antihistamines: Ebastine; Seldane (Terfenadine, taken off the U.S. market). Calcium Channel Blockers (Blood Pressure Drugs): Nimotop (Nimodipine); Nitrendipine; Plendil (Felodipine); Pranidipine; Sular (Nisoldipine); Psychiatric Medications: Buspar (Buspirone); Halcion (Triazolam); Tegretol (Carbamazepine); Valium (Diazepam); Versed (Midazolam). Intestinal Medications: Propulsid (Cisapride, taken off the U.S. market). Immune Suppressants: Neoral (Cyclosporine); Prograf (Tacrolimus). Pain Medications: Methadone. Impotence Drug: Viagra (Sildenafil). Other drugs may have potential interactions with grapefruit including: Amiodarone (Cordarone); Cilostazol (Pletal); Donepezil (Aricept); Losartan (Cozaar); Montelukast (Singulair); Pimozide (Orap); Quetiapine (Seroquel); Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and Tamsulosin (Flomax).


 Grapefruit Seed Extract:

   Grapefruit seed extract comes from the fruit of the grapefruit tree. Grapefruit is a commonly known fruit around the world. Originally from Asia, the deliciously tart fruit is now grown in the United States, Israel and Brazil. Another name for grapefruit seed extract is citrus paridisi.

The leaves of the grapefruit tree are quite glossy while the tree itself grows to be around 30 feet high with white flowers and mainly light yellow fruit.

In the year 1750, a man named Reverend Griffith Hughes became aware of the grapefruit and called it ‘the forbidden fruit’ in relation to the fruit that tempted Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The fruit carried the name ‘forbidden fruit’ for quite sometime afterwards.

In the world of aromatherapy, the essential oil from the grapefruit is used for its renewing qualities and uplifting effects. Many specialty stores carry room sprays with grapefruit oil as it is said to create a happy and relaxed environment. It is also believed to be able to relieve nervous exhaustion and stress. Grapefruit oil has been recognized as having a balancing effect on emotions.

Grapefruit has proven to be a versatile and often overlooked gift from nature. We use it to scent our homes, in our cleaning solutions and as a preserve in our foods. It comes as no surprise that grapefruit seed extract is versatile in its medicinal use as well.

Grapefruit seed extract is heavily concentrated and is usually diluted with water. You should avoid any contact with the eyes when using grapefruit seed extract.

Grapefruit seed extract is known to fight bacteria, viruses, protozoa and yeasts. It has also been used throughout history in the treatment of parasites.

A wonderful benefit of this natural extract is that it is basically nontoxic and cannot be absorbed into tissues so it can be used for a longer time than most medicinal extracts. This has proven to be quite advantageous in that the fight against two very difficult yeast to kill called candida and giardia yeast.

Grapefruit seed extract has been shown to maintain important antibiotic effects in studies using tube tests. But it was farmers who originally used grapefruit seed extract to suppress the growth of mold on their equipment and machinery. Cosmetic manufacturers have added the versatile extract to their products as a preservative.

The most recent usage for this extract has been in promoting the treatment of vaginal yeast infections caused by the naturally present bacteria candida.

A little comprehended intestinal condition called candida overgrowth syndrome has also been treated with grapefruit seed extract.

Grapefruit seed extract has also been used successfully in the following capacities:

1. Throat gargle: Add one drop of the extract into 3 ounces or more of water. Gargle as often as desired and use when necessary.

2. Nasal rinse: Add one drop of the extract to 6 ounces of water. Fill one nostril at a time using an eyedropper while the head is tilted back. Nod your head back and forth to ensure the mixture is entering the passages. Relax your head and allow the solution to drain.

3. Vaginal rinse: Add 1 to 2 drops of the extract into 8 ounces of water. Use as a douche one time each day for about a week.

4. Scalp Treatment: Mix 2 to 3 drops of the extract each time you shampoo. Massage into your scalp without scratching and leave on for at least 2 minutes. Rinse thoroughly. (Grapefruit seed extract can be applied without shampoo as well.)

Grapefruit seed extract has many uses and may already be an ingredient in some of the products you use in your home.

This extract has some of the most beneficial uses and some of the simplest ways in which to apply it. It truly is a versatile remedy.

Suggestions on Choosing a Quality Nutritional Supplement:

1. Be a careful consumer and buy your supplements only from manufacturers that are pharmaceutical GMP compliant. The most professional companies maintain strict adherence to regulatory standards and practices. Please shop carefully because dietary supplements are not standardized or regulated in the U.S. and may not contain the quantity of extracts which are stated on the label. Some supplements have even been found to contain contaminants.

2. Check the label to make sure your supplements do not contain any cheap fillers, additives, or artificial colors, etc. Some additives may include sugar, gluten, cornstarch, rice starch, silica (sand), artificial flavoring, artificial color, etc.

3. To get your money’s worth and enjoy the benefits of quality herbal extractions, make sure you buy only standardized extract. Why standardized extract? Because it delivers true-to-label ingredients and potency for the best efficacy and benefits. Tests of some supplements have show they contain far less of the active ingredients than they claim on their labels. Get what you pay for and what your body needs for optimum health. Why take a chance? Use only the best - only standardized extracts. Your good health may depend on it.

Grapefruit Seed Extract is commonly reported to have powerful antimicrobial activity. Some manufacturers claim that it is highly effective in a variety of microbial infections, including these organisms:

1.   Fungi

a.     Aspargillosis

b.     Candida albicans

c.     Trichophyton sp (ringworm)

2.   Bacteria

a.     Klebsiella

b.     Pseudomonas

c.     Escherichia coli (E.coli)

d.     Clostridium

e.     Salmonella


Companies that manufacture grapefruit seed extract products claim to have extensive research proving their beneficial effects. Some companies even publish extensive "scientific" evaluations of their products' effectiveness on their web pages.

However, when carefully analyzed and studied, grapefruit seed extract products appear to have little or no antimicrobial properties. Even more curious is the fact that almost all of the grapefruit seed extract products on the market contain preservatives that are intended to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi! This would make one wonder why, if these extracts were so powerful, the full strength concentrate (which should be far more effective in preventing microbial growth than the label recommended diluted dose) needs any preservative at all?

Also, when WellVet.com evaluated the claims of one of the companies, the parts per million (ppm) dose needed to control the various organisms in the sensitivity study were actually remarkably high. In reality, it would be impossible to achieve blood levels approaching those needed for the product to work. For example, to achieve control of Pseudomonas, 20,000           PPM was needed to achieve effective control. It is quite impossible to reach such concentrations in the bird's body, let alone consider what toxic damage might occur due to the presence of the preservatives in the product.

It seems to us at WellVet.com that the entire effectiveness of grapefruit seed extract is due totally to the presence of the preservatives, and the grapefruit seed extracts have no antimicrobial effects on their own.

For those who would like to look further into this issue, we offer the following abstracts of scientific studies involving grapefruit seed extracts:

These abstracts are from PubMed.Von Woedtke T, Schluter B, Pflegel P, Lindequist U, Julich WD. Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald, Germany. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained. Pharmazie 1999, Jun:

The antimicrobial efficacy as well as the content of preservative agents of six commercially available grapefruit seed extracts were examined. Five of the six extracts showed a high growth inhibiting activity against the test germs Bacillus subtilis SBUG 14, Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16, Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11, Serratia marcescens SBUG 9, Escherichia coli SBUG 17, Proteus mirabilis SBUG 47, and Candida maltosa SBUG 700. In all of the antimicrobial active grapefruit seed extracts, the preservative benzethonium chloride was detected by thin layer chromatography. Additionally, three extracts contained the preserving substances triclosan and methyl parabene. In only one of the grapefruit seed extracts tested no preservative agent was found. However, with this extract, as well as with several self-made extracts from seed and juiceless pulp of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi), no antimicrobial activity could be detected (standard serial broth dilution assay, agar diffusion test). Thus, it is concluded that the potent as well as nearly universal antimicrobial activity being attributed to grapefruit seed extract is merely due to the synthetic preservative agents contained within. Natural products with antimicrobial activity do not appear to be present.

 Grapefruit Extract Safety:

Grapefruit seed extract has been extensively tested and proven safe and effective by many laboratories and research centers throughout the world.

Grapefruit seed extract has no inherent toxicity and exhibits no negative impact on beneficial intestinal bacteria. There are no known side effects or interactions. Grapefruit seed extract can be taken for long periods of time with no ill or toxic effects.

It is non-allergenic. Even people who are allergic to citrus have had no adverse reactions. This is largely due to its harmonizing effects to cope with body stress. Although about 3 to 5 per cent of all people are allergic to citrus fruit and could therefore also display a sensitive reaction to grapefruit seed extract. These people should start with a low dosage and perform a patch test to be sure.

Grapefruit seed extract can be used safely by most people. Even infants and the elderly, as well as those with compromised health. Pets and animals of all types and sizes can benefit greatly using grapefruit seed extract.

Grapefruit seed extract has been safely used worldwide for over 25 years by countless doctors, alternative health care practitioners and veterinarians.

How is Grapefruit Extract Made?

Grapefruit extract (GSE) is made by first converting grapefruit seeds and pulp into a very acidic liquid. This liquid is loaded with polyphenolic compounds, including quercitin, helperidin, campherol glycoside, neohelperidin, naringin, apigenin, rutinoside, poncirin, etc.

The polyphenols themselves are unstable but are chemically converted into more stable substances that belong to a diverse class of products called quaternary ammonium compounds. Some quaternary compounds, benzethonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, for example, are used industrially as antimicrobials, but are toxic to animal life. The B vitamin choline is also a quaternary compound, but is nontoxic and even essential for maintaining healthy neurological function and fat metabolism.

Grapefruit extract features the best of both worlds. While evidencing none of the toxic side-effects of chemically-derived quaternaries.

The finished product is a viscous, yellow-amber colored liquid that features a taste that is both bitter and acidic. Pure vegetable glycerin is added to reduce the bitterness and acidity to a tolerable level and to reduce the possibility that incidental contact could cause irritation to the skin or mucous membranes. Grapefruit seed extract has a slight citrus smell.