Vitamin B3




Systematic name

3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid

Other names

Pyridine-β-carboxylic acid
Vitamin B3

Chemical formula


Molecular mass

123.11 g/mol

Melting point

236.6 °C

Boiling point


CAS number















Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. The designation vitamin B3 also includes the corresponding amide nicotinamide, or niacinamide, whose chemical formula is C6H6N2O.

Nicotine(grass) sour(the vitamin B3, the niacin-nicotinic acid) detection

At 18 jerkins, Italian detection contain a kind of Cao skin disease(pellagra), studying to find having a certain vitamin can cure the Cao skin disease in 1912 Funk surname afterwards.At 1926, the Cao skin disease can guide with the artificial, and give When the yeast fungus eat, the Cao skin disease can recover from illness.Afterwards finds the nicotinic acid can cure the Cao skin disease, past at 1937, call this kind of nourishment vegetable as to prevent the Cao skin cause of disease son.(the pellagra preventive factor, PP)

The nicotine is sour(the nicotinic acid) is a kind of pyridine(one nitrogen three Xis six wreaths), R=OH, and the tabacco Xi An(nicotinamide) constitute, R=NH2.Two kinds of materials are all the whites crystallize solid, can be permitted in a water.This kind of vitamin not only is easily influenced by heat, and have sensitivity to the light and the alkalescence.For convenience' sake, two kinds of vitamin structure is different, but the function is similar, so all be called nicotine sour(niacin).Unless special bring up, the most parts is to point a tabacco sour(the nicotinic acid) and talk.

Smoke the sour first time be found from the oxygenation of the nicotine.When smoke the sour products be found, it is thought of the carefully airtight choice name leave to solve it from the nicotine and avoid viewpoint, or smoked to provide the vitamin or the health food to include a kind of poison.Yield results of assign name to' the smoke is sour' is acquired id from the ni cotinicac+ vitam.The vitamin B3 and point "the vitamin page".


Living creature compatibility

The liver synthesizes smoke probably sour sour(pay respects to an underneath) from the basic amino acids color ammonia, but comprehensive is extreme slow of; 60 the color ammonia the sour milligram must do the ten cents gram smoke sour.The food smoke is only sour to lack of to incline toward occurrence to eat corn at people, only grain is low to fall in the smoke sourly, is the district of the staple food, and that doesn't use lime to produce a period in the corn(corn) meal/flour. The alkali lime announces the color ammonia from the corn sour for the purpose of its possible absorbability in the esophagus, with is converted smoke sour.


The living creature synthesizes

Basic amino acids, the color ammonia is sour of 5-membered sweet smell heterocycle is sliced open and is re- tidied up the AN Er method ammonia Ji group color ammonia is sour is sour into the smoke 6-membered sweet smell heterocycle by respond as follows:



The living creature synthesizes: The color ammonia the sour kynurenine smoke is sour


Food sources

Animal products:

Fruits and vegetables:



  • liver, heart and kidney

  • chicken

  • Beef

  • fish: tuna, salmon

  • milk

  • eggs

  • leaf vegetables

  • broccoli

  • tomatoes

  • carrots

  • dates

  • sweet potatoes

  • asparagus

  • avocados

  • nuts

  • whole grain products

  • legumes

  • saltbush seeds

  • mushrooms

  • brewer's yeast



Generally speaking, in the bowel way, the germ can be been sour(tryptophan) by the color An to synthesize a tabacco sour, but this quantity small shortage with supply mankind need.BE besides been sour by the color An to synthesize a tabacco sour, also need to depend on the color An sour absorb quantity enough or not, and still want other An Jis sour as white An the sour and different and white An is sour, the Xie An is sour, the Qian D An is sour and leave sour etc. of An, and have to have vitamin B1, B6, the living creature vegetable(biotin) in the food, start and can synthesize a tabacco after absorbing into sour.


Tryptophankynurenine3-hydroxykynurenic acid

3-hydroxyanthranilic acidquinolinic acidnicotinic acid



niacin---nicotinic acid


Tabacco sour metabolism

The tabacco is sour very efficient in the absorption of the bowel way, and can become to assist Mei(co-enzyme) in change inside the body very soon.Although the tabacco is sour in the body distribute very widely, but don't store in the body.Few part the tabacco is sour or the tabacco Xi An eject, but the most parts still is ejected with the N-A Ji tabacco Xi An.Although the tabacco is sour to have no the material of Jie anti- to present, white An the sour existence will increase a sour demand of tabacco.It have very high and white An in the chestnut sour, if ate chestnut to eat to have another, the tabacco is sour to will seem to be lack of of condition.India produces chestnut to have another, the Indian love eats chestnut, eating too many, often because of the white An is sour to absorb too many and appear a tabacco sour lack of a disease.


Physiology function phenomenon

The sugar solution function, fat synthesizes, organization breath hour of assist Mei, the tabacco is sour also is all organizations to oxidize process essential, also is a body inside synthesize long chain fatty acids the essential vitamin.

The hydrogen ion transfers in the bio-chemical process essential, the tabacco is sour to mainly be considered as the hydrogen ion conversion in the bio-chemical process need, is a NAD(the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) it constitute of a part, also is an energy to want to produce the first toll-gate, need NAD to come to catalyst, if have no the NAD assist Mei, then the creation of the energy, more can't successfully carry on.(NAD++2 Hs++2 es NADH+ H+)

Past tabacco sour and bio-chemical function, mainly lie in the skin, the stomach and intestines way and the nervous system organization medium.The tabacco is sour(is not its An) to have the function of the pharmacology, particularly is the blood vessel of the circulatory system extends and the cholesterol decrease in the serum of characteristic.

Can be used for a metabolism of getting the stomach acid, protein, fat, starch need, sex He Er receive to synthesize essential.


The condition of illness that the tabacco is sour to lack of

Tabacco sour part in the body function, lie in a brain, liver, nerve, skin, the software organization, tongue etc..Lack of have following situation:

Lacking of a tabacco sour obstacle of callous pathological changes and the stomach and intestines way is most obvious.

The condition of illness that starts lacking of is an anorexia, growing delay, crack-up and having impaired digestion, descending Li.The bowel way mucosa inflammation, bad die and ulcerate, large intestine, knot intestinal bleeding.The skin surface is rough and knots Jia dermatitis.The anemic occurrence of the small bloody form.

The mankind lack of a tabacco sour, arise problem from the stomach and intestines way first, include the tongue inflammation(glossitis) and the quarrel Yan(stomatitis).

Again seriously descend go to, will be disgusted with having food disease to take place, belly uncomfortable feeling and descend Li.

The spirit condition of illness of the earlier period is exhausted(lassitude), worry(apprehesion), suppress, lose a crazy disease of memory, autism, mental disorder, hysterical disease(hysteria), Zao.

Will also take place a pimple, bald, halitosis(halitosis), high blood pressure, feet to cramp(the leg cramp) generally, the migraine(the migraine headaches), blood circulation isn't good, urgent, decayed tooth etc..


Tabacco the sour function enlarge of nourishment vegetable

(1)Bs,(2) vitamin B1s(3), vitamin B2s(4), vitamin Cs(5), Lin.


The material and condition of the Jie anti- will influence the vitamin B3 to need to be measured

(1)The sugar or starch,(5) antibiotics of the wet goods,(2) coffee,(3) tobacco,(4) surfeit.


The tabacco is sour to be used for a treatment

The tabacco is sour to mainly use to handle the tongue inflammation(glossitis) and the quarrel Yan(stomatitis), and the malnutrition and the spirit condition of illness of the Cao skin disease.

Want to use with the vitamin B1 and the B2 together while handling the neuritis and eyes vision condition of illness of the whole body.

If disease handled to include the stomach and intestines disease form since then, as Yan diarrhea, the tongue inflammation and the quarrel Yan etc., can also use a tabacco sour to cure.

Be used for preventing from measuring, can use a mgs everyday;Be used for curing the Cao skin disease to sometimes use a mgs everyday.

Because the tabacco is sour to have effect of extending the blood vessel, making use of to reduce blood pressure, can use  mgs everyday.


Lack of a surfeit with the medicine


                              Chemistry structure


Scathing lack of smoke sour cause to lack of the disease pellagra, but the lacking of of geniality decelerate less and less cold tolerance of metabolism.Smoke sour Extemely big amount of may cause sour maculopathy of smoke, cause make dirty of vision and blindness become thick sunspot and see retina. smokes are sour is recommended of everyday permit a limit is  everyday of milligrams for the kid,  milligram a day is women, 16 the milligrams behave for a day, with  the milligrams feed to keep for the pregnant or female milk for a day of women. milligrams cause the flushing of heat keep on  minutes perhaps everyday in period, and a kind of feeling that delivers Yang strangely with redden a skin together.It causes under the some condition perhaps headache even disgusting.This is completely normal of if smoke the sour and big amount of medicine be not adopted at with is caused by the cell of the body to announce amino acids before, cause vasodilation.Once the body becomes an usage to the larger medicine quantity(usually in several days), these side effects will diminish or will stop.Needing the of A Si works properly half an hour at the smoke is generally sour and will ease side effect before.


Other uses

Niacin plays an important role in the production of several sex and stress-related hormones, particularly those made by the adrenal gland. It also plays a role in removing toxic and harmful chemicals from the body.

Niacin, when taken in large doses, increases the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) or "good" cholesterol in blood, and is sometimes prescribed for patients with low HDL, and at high risk of heart attack.An extended release formulation of niacin for this indication is marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the trade name Niaspan. Niacin (but not niacinamide) is also used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia because it reduces very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), a precursor of low density lipoprotein (LDL) or "bad" cholesterol, secretion from the liver, and inhibits cholesterol synthesis. The main problem with the clinical use of niacin for dyslipidemia is the occurrence of skin flushing, even with moderate doses.There are current attempts to create a prolonged-release formulation of the substantance, to allow it to be used more often and more comfortably.

Niacin in itself is not toxic, but the chemicals converted by niacin are toxic to the skin and liver in overdose, and high doses of niacin should only be reached with gradual increase. Studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated behavioral changes when large doses of niacin are given.

Industrial use

Nicotinic acid reacts with hemoglobin and myoglobin in meat to form a brightly coloured complex, and thus has been used as a food additive, typically to improve the colour of minced (ground) meat. Niacin is licensed as a food colouring agent in some countries.


二、The hairdressing effect of the vitamin B3:

Vitamin B3:Can promote the blood loop of the cell, the prevention and the repair sunlight to the skin causes of hurt, lacking of the vitamin B3 appear after canning cause to insolate of dermatitis, and the keratin rough or black spot etc. condition, but too many to take and then will cause the skin brief to flush and Hen Yang




Being thought two kinds of compounds to constitute by the Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide can find out in the fish meat milk ware

BE been assist Function while being released energy by the nourishment vegetable is a NAD+and NADP+of before quality

*Niacin = Nicotic acid Vitamins

*Dissimilation(resolve) aNADPH for the a NADH to assimilate function(synthesize)