桑椹花.Morus alba

Scientific name


Morus alba

Common name



Thai name



Active Ingredients


- Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
- 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ)
- Essential amino acids (18)
- Sitosterol

Therapeutic use


- Reduces high blood pressure
- Treatment of diabetes mellitus
- and hypercholesterolemia



Mulberry tea



Mulberry tea is approved by the Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Public Health and is free from toxic chemicals

 Morus alba History

      As early as on appeared Sang Chen before the number millennium the record, also has the narration including the Holy Bible, therefore the mulberry reputation is "the classics wonderful flower" one;Sang Chen also represented in the ancient times luckily, when Sicily Nicolay sage commemoration day, the people could chop the next section of mulberry tree and the entire year preservation, implored a yeargood luck. 

Mulberry tree, alternate name small leaf mulberry, silkworm young leaf, silkworm raising, silkworm young tree and so on. Originally produces west Asia, China, Japan. Fallen leaf tree or bush. Dioecism.The single leaf , the extravagant oval or deep crack palm shape crack leaf, the leaf table is rough, zigzag. Trunk and branches full cloth . The fruit for the multi- flowered aggregate fruit, the armpit lives, the pulp, initially the green extension is red, the mature time purple black, is called "the

mulberry . The reproduction may use the seed, the cuttage or grafts.


Leaf: -alternate arrangement -leaves are simple, often lobed (both typescommon on 1 branch) -margins are serrated-shape of the leaf blade is ovate, but with a fairly sharp (acute) tip-leaf base is rounded or cordate -petiole distinct, ca. 1"long-leaf surface smooth,dark green, and often shiny -no distinct autumn color

Flower: -plants may be monoecious (separate male and female flowers on the same plants) or dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants) [=polygamo-dioecious]-small, greenish flowers –stalked-hanging catkins-not showy

Fruit: Botanically the fruit is not a berry but a collective fruit, in appearance like a swollen loganberry. When the flowers are pollinated, they and their fleshy bases begin to swell. Ultimately they become completely altered in texture and color, becoming succulent, fat and full of juice. In appearance, each tiny swollen flower roughly resembles the individual drupe of a blackberry. The color of the fruit does not identify the mulberry species. White mulberries, for example, can produce white, lavender or black fruit. White mulberry fruits are generally very sweet but often lacking in needed tartness. Red mulberry fruits are usually deep red, almost black, and in the best clones have a flavor that almost equals that of the black mulberry. Black mulberry fruits are large and juicy, with a good balance of sweetness and tartness that makes them the best flavored species of mulberry. The refreshing tart taste is in some ways reminiscent of grapefruit. Mulberries ripen over an extended period of time unlike many other fruits which seem to come all at once.

Twig: Slender, zigzag, gray to orange-brown, smooth, buds reddish brown with numerous scales, scales often lack dark edges, leaf scar sunken oval, broken twigs display silvery white filaments.

Bark: Orange-brown with lenticels when young, becoming gray with long narrow irregular ridges.

Form: A small tree up to feet tall, branches low and develops a wide spreading crown

Texture -coarse when bare -medium in leaf 

Habitat -Zones 5-8 -Native to Eastern and Central China

All three mulberry species are deciduous trees of varying sizes. White mulberries can grow to  are the most variable in form, including drooping and pyramidal shapes. In the South on rich soils the red mulberry can reach 70 ft. in height. The black mulberry is the smallest of the three, sometimes growing to in height, but it tends to be a bush if not trained when it is young. The species vary greatly in longevity. Red mulberry trees rarely live more than 75 years, while black mulberries have been known to bear fruit for hundreds of years. The mulberry makes an attractive tree which will bear fruit while still small and young.

Foliage: The white mulberry is so-named for the color of its buds, rather than the color of its fruit. The thin, glossy, light green leaves are variously lobed even on the same plant. Some are unlobed while others are glove-shaped. Leaves of the red mulberry are larger and thicker, blunt toothed and often lobed. They are rough on their upper surfaces and pubescent underneath. The smaller black mulberry leaves are similar to those of the red mulberry, but with sturdier twigs and fatter buds. The species vary in the time of year they begin to leaf-out. White mulberries generally come out in early spring, almost two months before black mulberries.  


will grown in virtually any soil except wet areas

urban tolerant, will withstand drought, air pollution,

salt spray, compacted soils

easily transplanted and adaptable

selected cultivars (mainly the weeping forms) are

moderately available

-numerous cosmetic and serious diseases (bacterial

blight, cankers, mildew) and pests (scales and mites)

affect this tree, especially in hot, humid environments 

Location: Mulberries need full sun and also adequate space. The distance between trees should be at least 15 ft. The trees should not be planted near a sidewalk. The fallen fruit will not only stain the walkway, but are likely to be tracked indoors. The trees are quite wind-resistant with some cultivars used as windbreaks in the Great Plains region.

Soil: Mulberries like a warm, well-drained soil, preferably a deep loam. Shallow soils such as those frequently found on chalk or gravel are not recommended.

Irrigation: Although somewhat drought-resistant, mulberries need to be watered in dry seasons. If the roots become too dry during drought, the fruit is likely to drop before it has fully ripened.

Fertilization: Mulberries generally thrive with minimal fertilization. An annual application of a balanced fertilizer such as will maintain satisfactory growth. In California mulberries usually need only nitrogen.

Pruning: No special pruning techniques are needed after the branches have been trained to a sturdy framework, except to remove dead or overcrowded wood. A mulberry tree can be kept to a tidy form by developing a set of main branches, and then pruning laterals to 6 leaves in July in order to develop spurs near the main branches. It is not advisable to prune the trees heavily since the plant is inclined to bleed at the cuts. Cuts of more than two inches in diameter generally do not heal and should be avoided at all cost. The bleeding will be less severe if the tree is pruned while it is dormant.

Propagation: Mulberries can be grown from seed, although the plants can take 10 years or more to bear. Seed should be sown as soon as extracted from the fruit, although white mulberry seeds germinate better after stratifying one to three months before planting.

Sprig budding is the most common method for grafting mulberries. A T-cut is made in the rootstock and a smooth, sloping cut is made on the lower end of the scion. The scion is then inserted into the T and wrapped and sealed. Other types of grafts are also usually successful, although there may be incompatibility between white and black mulberries. Hardwood, softwood and root cuttings also are suitable methods for propagating mulberries. Softwood cuttings of white mulberries root easily when taken in midsummer and treated with rooting hormone. Red mulberries are less easily rooted. Black mulberries are also somewhat difficult to propagate since they tend to bleed a lot.

Pests and Diseases: Mulberries are generally free of pests and diseases, although cankers and dieback can occur. In some areas "popcorn disease" is an occasional problem, in which fruits swell to resemble popped corn. M. alba/M. rubra hybrids are particularly prone to this condition. The disease carries on from one season to the next, so collecting and burning infected fruits help control it. The ripe fruit is very attractive to birds, but there is usually enough fruit left over for harvesting.

Harvest: White and red mulberry fruits (and hybrid fruits) are ready for harvest in late spring. The fruit of black mulberries ripen in summer to late summer. The fruits of white mulberries are often harvested by spreading a sheet on the ground and shaking the limbs. A surprising quantity can be gathered from a comparatively small and young tree. Black mulberry fruits are more difficult to pick. As the berries are squeezed to pull them loose, they tend to collapse, staining the hands (and clothing) with blood red juice. Unwashed the berries will keep several days in a refrigerator in a covered container. The ripe fruits of the black mulberry contain about 9% sugar with malic and citric acid. The berries can be eaten out of hand or used in any way that other berries are used, such as in pies, tarts, puddings or sweetened and pureed as a sauce. Slightly unripe fruits are best for making pies and tarts. Mulberries blend well with other fruits, especially pears and apples. They can also be made into wine and make an excellent dried fruit, especially the black varieties.  


   Richly contains vitamin C, the tartaric acid and the glucose by the extract in, in the effective resistance external environment the ultraviolet ray to the flesh injury, blocks the melanin the production, and may promote the epidermal cell differentiation, black spot of and the aging the acceleration metabolism already production, improvement skin color uneven puzzle

By the tea branch plant in the calm flesh and the anti- oxidized effect, the promotion has produced the melanin the metabolism, and can help flesh regeneration, delay the aging, increases the flesh the elasticity and the gloss, lets beautiful white effect Canada ride, suits the sensitive frail flesh use.

 Unifies Sang Chenhua, the camellia double characteristic, matches recognition effective America white ingredient Vitamin C, the vitamin B5 derivative, as well as removes old waste , reduces the pore he salicylic acid, Gan Ch'usuan and so on. 


  As for in the cosmetology effect, Sang Chenshu from the fruit, all has

the curative effect the root to flowered entire. The black raspberry extract fluid anti- oxidizes the special performance resistance environmental pollution to the skin injury. Regarding the hair aspect, it can increase sends the quantity, andrestores the hair the gloss and the elasticity. Sang Chenhan the rich vitamin, the tartaric acid, the glucose and soon, may adjust the digestion, promotes the intestines mucous membrane

secretion, may eliminate sleeps.

Sang Chentzu includes the rich nutrition ingredient, if the glucose and the multivitamins, may treat the digestive tract old disease, the promotion gastric juice secretion, the enhancement digestion absorbancy and wriggle the strength. Sang Chen is the blood cleaner, the acid sour and sweet sweet unusual delicacy, may work as the fruit directly eats, also may make the jam or ferment Sang Chenchiu. Regularly eats some mulberries ,the clear blood function wins the red wine! 

Nutritious clear vision

   Sang Chentzu for nourishes analeptics, coordinates other benefit medicines to be possible widely to treat certain feeble illness. Every physical strength declines, the sexual intercourse dispiritedly, loses sleep the multi- dreams, is agitated, is not rather dizzy, becomes emaciated, has a poor appetite may use Sang Chentzu to take a tonic,

Shan Weisangsub- may make, can nourish the blood tonic,Sang Chentzu soaks the liquor, can fortify yang the profit to be mad, ater is gets sick medicinal preparation of the recuperation.

Sang Chentzu can nourish promotes saliva or body fluids, every trouble weak illness, the body fluids lose money, Chang Kan has a dry throat, the fetid odor really thickly, may be mature to summer Sang Chentzu time, eats every day one two. This smell delicate fragrance Gansu Run, is dry each time uses three money, fries the water, the vision drops does not bear the immortality,

may use Sang Chentzu to fry drinks, can nourish the body fluids, makes

the eye vision enhancement.  

Raises blood Wu Fa

   Sang Chentzu has the blood tonic effect, the anemia patient, looks pale, chieftain dizziness, loses sleep the palpitation, Sang Chenkao the effect is good, must continue to take. The woman produces the anemia, after long illness and big surgery, appears the above card likely, Sang Chentzu may the casual cloth. The compound prescription

often with the Chinese angelica, the fruit of the glossy privet, ripely comes in handy.

The young child hair does not live, named white Xiu, may use fresh Sang Chentzu to pound the juice, repeatedly enters drinks, also may take Sang Chentzu the juice to wash wipes the forehead, urges Bai T'u to grow the black hair. After every middle age multiplies the white hair, may use Sang Chentzu to soak the liquor casual cloth,

facilitates the white hair to transfer black. The age gradually increases, but casual cloth Sang Chenchiu, prevention growth white hair.

Special curative effect

   Sang Chenhan the rich vitamin, the tartaric acid, the glucose and so on, may adjust the digestion, promotes the intestines mucous membrane secretion, may eliminate sleeps then. Therefore may treat the gastric disease, the constipation, the joint ache. The mulberry leaf cool clear vision, the advantage joint, drinks young cup of Sang Chenchiu every day, in vivo does not have the impurity, not sleeps then, the bodily lithe health. 

Prevention hypertension

Dry the root skin Mulberry , after grinds advances in 1.8 liters rice wines, again adds the white granulated sugar, soaks approximately for half month namely to become [ mulberry liquor ].Before drinks front first must filter. rests every day drinks 15c.c.  

Eliminates wearily, builds up strength

Sang Chenchiu, frequently drinks with may make up the empty profit to be mad, to go to the moisture, the advantage five internal organs joint, calms the spirits the town god, the clever ear clear vision, Wu Tzu, the advantage water, the disinfection, cool, relieves a cough. 

Chemical composition from several different studies referred to in the electronic conference by different authors (% of DM).


DM, %

Ash, %

CP, %

CF, %

NDF, %

ADF, %

EE, %

Forage 1,2

28.7- 40.2







Leaves 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8








Leaf & young stems 3,9








Young stems 1,3,4








Woody stems 1,3








1)     Benavides, 2000; 2) Benavides et al., 2000; 3) Sánchez, 2000a; 4) Kitahara et al., 2000; 5) Liu et al, 2000; 6) Schmidek et al., 2000a; 7) Schmidek et al., 2000b; 8) Trujillo, 2000; 9) Angeloni, 2000;