一、           Introduction :

Scientific term  :  Crassostrea  gigas

Good name  :   Oyster

Vulgar  :  E Zi,  oyster Zi


The oyster meat plump is great slippery, the flavor is fresh and beautiful, the nourishment is abundant, the vegetable has beautiful"the bottom of sea milk" to call.Do the oyster meat to contain protein to be up to 45% according to the analysis~57%, fat is 7%~11%, the liver sugar is 19%~38%.Also have various vitamins(especially the vitamin A) and the cattle Huang in addition sour with nourishment compositions, such as calcium, Lin, iron and zinc...etc..The calcium content near to milk of 100%, the iron content is a milk of 2100%, is the precious food of the Jian skin hairdressing and prevention and cure disease.


This grass outline jot down:The oyster meat"eat it more, ability the fine work skin, restore virility strong sun, and can cure falsely, solve erysipelas".The modern medical science thinks the oyster meat still has blood pressure of decline and reinforces body fluid and nurish the blood etc. function.


The oyster meat is fresh and beautiful due to the flavor, all of nourishment, and the ability"thin skin, beautiful facial appearance" and decline blood pressure and reinforce body fluid and nurish the blood, do exercise to keep fit strong body etc. various functions, as a result is seen as the delicacy sea Jane with strongly built strengthen figure food.In many ocean delicacies, many persons are the clock feeling only in the oyster.The west calls it as "the God grant an evil food".The Japanese calls then it is "the source of the root".There is also the praise poem of"underground oyster in sky is only".Ancient time now Chinese and Foreign few person's refined scholarses all and oyster knot descend do not solve of good luck.


The oyster of the whole world have 18 belong to 100 varieties, the most cans be provided to eat, belonging to important economic molluscs.The waters of four weeks in Taiwan has 5 belong to ten remainings to grow, the oyster belongs to the double farming category with the most familiar hull key link of the mollusk door as big oyster(the Crassostrea gigas(T.)), And then call huge oyster, long oyster, true oyster.


Outer shell characteristic


Most hulls key links has two hulls of likenesses.


The hull can present various shapes,such as oval or long form, , because its growth adheres to of position different, make its outer shell shape change greatly.The hull brings the ash black, is miscellaneous to have purple, brown, black or yellow of the striped pattern and Wen order, the appearance of the hull is a deep dust-colour, inside face for the grey color.Body can the complete Suo go into hull.


But oyster carry hull on oyster's back present an irregular form, hull of the left side ratio the right side of the hull is big, hull carry good luck on hull's back lack of to wring Chi, shut the hull muscle ago very small perhaps deteriorate, behind shut the hull muscle rather flourishing, was responsible for the close of the hull petal.


The coping of the hull has a small sew and can circulate sea water, and absorb, arrange the process of the sea water in can complete the breath function and Lyu to eat a plankton.The oyster dwells for rest much between the tide to bring or the neritic Jiao rock bottom of sea, oyster of the body be implanted with left hull on the strong and tough bottom quality, not other double hulls,such as the text clam, etc., can move freely.


Descends the internal situation that the diagram shows an oyster



Grow environment         


The oyster farming of the Taiwanese west coast brings between the tide much and neritic cay bottom of sea, has on the rock fixedly by its left hull of bring between the tide and the river mouth area, steep into the water while rising tide, at low ebb hour the fisherman descends a work in the oyster, managing up very convenient.The oyster is the wide salt molluscs, to the sea water salt degree the orientation pole breadth, the river mouth littoral all can the growth is extremely good, opposite of then be subjected to a pollution more and easily in the river mouth and waters farming in littoral.


Living temperament


Oyster for the salt the adaptability is rather high, all suiting it a growth in 10~36 PPTs, the oyster descends to grow up in the high salt"point the whole sea 36 ppts and talk" better, but the low salt descend bait to anticipate living creature ample hour then compare easy grossness, the oyster can grow up above in 15 degrees C.


Taiwan adopts seedling to be divided into two time generally:

One for 7~ is called "the autumn seedling" August;Adopt seedling to be called "the spring seedling" in February next year to October;


The former adheres to the number less growth fast, the oyster fallen off harvest not easily better;And then adheres to number more, the oyster is greedy for a food, can the day and night continuously Lyu water absorb, only the water temperature and salt are feat, its growth namely very fast, however water temperature at 32 degrees C above, because the Lyu water is multifarious to present tired appearance, with the result that growth worse.


The oyster breeds


Match with artificial to teach seedling recently, make oyster and can keep grossness whole year round and can take in to adopt to accept at any time.The oyster genital gland is full after, as long as be subjected to the external world of influence, stimulate to start ovulate, putting Jing namely, for example storm back of salt variety, the Gan high water peep out of temperature variety(so the high water of the full moon ovulates to put Jing at most), Taiwanese oyster whole year round the genital gland is full, can adopt seedling at any time, but monthly October of 9~ most, 3~ April least, other seasons all there are few seedlings can adhere to, but because 3~ July easy wear get moss insect, water Xi, the rattan pot...etc. and the influence adopt the seedling result.


The economic value of the oyster


Oyster not only the flavor is fresh and beautiful, nourishing health care function also is an ancient time Chinese and Foreign way called now.

Taking the oyster withdraws a thing, contributing to making the machine each system of body function enter the best movement appearance,

Also can accelerate the disease body to recover from illness, defend old anti- Shuai.


Therefore, the oyster withdraws a thing extensively be used for strengthen figure the Jian body and hepatitis, tubercle, cardiovascular system disease, old-age intelligence decline, tumor of the assistance cure.The oyster is a lot of to the advantage of the human body.


The advantage of the oyster:


1.The oyster enriches to contain the vitamin and the mineral quality, especially selenium, zinc...etc. the little element content is abundant.


2.The oyster withdraws the thing Jing powder to contain above high-quality protein of 20%, its amino acids constitutes perfect, exceed the milk and human milk.


3.The oyster contains although fat is few, many for compound Lin fat, phosphoric acid muscle Chun of having the physiology activity, 20 carbons five Xis are sour(EPA), 22 carbons six Xi sour(DHA) etc..These compositions all have already kept artery hardening, anti- blood from bolting and the anti- decrepitude function.


4.The oyster enriches to contain natural cattle Huang sour.The cattle Huang is sour to have already eliminated inflammation to counteract poison, protect liver benefit Dan, cholesterol-lowering, promote the kid's brain develop and tranquilize the nerves the Jian brain etc. function.


5.The sugar that oyster contain for the sugar dollar, it withdraws the sugar dollar in thing to occupy 20-40%.The sugar dollar is the storage form that organizes the energy material, is material assurance of[with] the physical strength intelligence activity efficiency and last long power.The oyster withdraws the result that the thing can also raise athlete, acceleration exercise back the instauration of the fatigue.


二、           Apply for Oyster :


The oyster hull is the raw material of the fertilizer

Source:The farming oyster shells meat behind it abandon oyster hull

Use:The oyster hull be a forage to use the raw material, the oyster hull of the mineral quality subsidy forage after crushing to pieces ground

After be the raw material of the fertilizer.


The oyster hull is a hairdressing use

The oyster hull is often seen as the garbage, however, the Council of Agriculture marine products experiments the world led, from abandon the oyster hull to extract nacreous Xing , Help fair and the defer skin is aging, and apply in the skin care products and care the article and the hairdressing beverage, will call away a technique to the civil manufacturer in the future, promoting the oyster hull significantly additional value, let "the garbage change gold".


The Taiwanese on all sides wreath sea, the marine products resource is abundant, the water tries study a natural material of the marine products article to use lately in recent years

Way, after succeed to make use of the fish scale collagen, seaweed development product, the water tries recently research the target target to abandon oyster hull.


The water tries point out, Taiwanese every year has 160,000 metric tons to abandon the oyster hull about, being often thrown fisherman away by in the wayside, or being whetted powder to feed on the chicken to be used as the chicken the calcium quality source, the water tries study to find the oyster hull enriches to contain high-quality composition, hasing been had another study, succeed extract protein from the oyster hull nacre, again incise for small numerator of Xing .


The water tries indicate, nacreous Xing Have abundant protein, carbohydrate and the mineral quality, test a confimation, nacreous Xing Helped to repress sour  of the Lao AnActivity, stop melanin born, and have an anti- to oxidize an ability, have already helped fair and defer the skin is aging, and nacreous Xing The molecular weight is small, permeating sex to the skin high, applied have already developed a series product currently in the hairdressing skin care products and the health care article.


The water tries point out, be used as the chicken the oyster hull powder of the forage one kilogram originally to sell  only, but the oyster hull nacreous Xing At first liquid 100 cs.c.Can sell  dollars, economy the value is very high, can say BE"make big profits with a small capital".


The water tries indicate, the water tries develop of extract a technique and can resolve the oyster hull heavy metals pollution problem, and extract a liquid to spray dry back the Fu water is good, can fuse completely.


The water tries indicate, the oyster hull not only has nacre, but also has abundant calcium quality, the technique that water develop when trying can clean heavy metals, converting calcium carbonate be easy to the calcium oxide of the absorption, the calcium oxide powder for natural and alkaline food, can increase in the beverage to dispense to be used as the alkalescence revivification water, adjust constitution an equilibrium body inside oxidize degree.


The water tries indicate, make use of the oyster hull effectively, not only resolve the pollution of the environment problem, but also bring business opportunities and promote oyster additional value, also create income for the fisherman.



三、           The hairdressing ingredient of the oyster

The hairdressing ingredient-vitamin AN of the oyster


The oyster enriches to contain the vitamin A, can make the skin keep to moisten

Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. It belongs to the family of chemical compounds known as retinoids. Retinol is ingested in a precursor form; animal sources (milk and eggs) contain retinyl esters, whereas plants (carrots, spinach) contain pro-vitamin A carotenoids. Hydrolysis of retinyl esters results in retinol while pro-vitamin A carotenoids can be cleaved to produce retinal. Retinal, also known as retinaldehyde, can be reversibly reduced to produce retinol or it can be irreversibly oxidized to produce retinoic acid. The best described active retinoid metabolites are 11-cis-retinal and the all-trans and 9-cis-isomers of retinoic acid.

Vitamin A (Retinol)


Chemical formula


Molecular weight

286.456 g/mol

Vitamin properties



RDA (adult male)

900 µg/day

RDA (adult female)

700 µg/day

RDA upper limit (adult male)

3,000 µg/day

RDA upper limit (adult female)

3,000 µg/day

Deficiency symptoms

  • Night blindness
  • Keratomalacia
  • Pale, dry skin

Excess symptoms

  • Liver toxicity
  • Dry skin
  • Hair loss
  • Teratological effects
  • Osteoporosis (suspected, long-term)

Common sources

  • Liver
  • Dairy products
  • Darkly colored fruits
  • Leafy vegetables












The oyster hull nacreous Xing Helped to repress sour  of the Lao AnActivity, stop melanin born


Because the oyster hull nacreous Xing Have abundant protein



Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, "digestible") are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. The link between one amino acid residue and the next is an amide bond and is sometimes referred to as a peptide bond.

Proteins are polypeptide molecules (or consist of multiple polypeptide subunits). The distinction is that peptides are short and proteins are long. There are several different conventions to determine these, all of which have flaws. In order for a polypeptide to be a protein, it has to have some sort of biological function in the body. [citation needed]

One convention is that those peptide chains that are short enough to be made synthetically from the constituent amino acids are called peptides rather than proteins. However, with the advent of better synthetic techniques, peptides as long as hundreds of amino acids can be made, including full proteins like ubiquitin. Native chemical ligation has given access to even longer proteins, so this convention seems to be outdated.

Another convention places an informal dividing line at approximately 50 amino acids in length (some people claim shorter lengths). However, this definition is somewhat arbitrary — some peptides such as alzheimer's beta peptide can be considered proteins and some proteins (such as insulin) are close to the upper limit for peptides. Because of the arbitrary nature of this definition, there is considerable movement within the scientific community to ascribe the more-specific definition that "a peptide is an amino acid molecule without secondary structure; on gaining defined structure, it is a protein." Thus the same molecule can be either a peptide or a protein depending on its environment, though there are peptides that cannot be proteins


English Name :  tyrosinase


When the skin is projected light upon by ultraviolet ray, the melanin cell in the skin will accelerate to secrete sour  of the Lao An, And produce a great deal of melanin to impede ultraviolet ray to avoid ultraviolet ray's injury for human body.So the melanin is to defend to insolate naturally:It is a large and organic numerator, dropping the harmful influence of the ultraviolet ray radiation by the physics and chemistry Lyu;It can absorb ultraviolet ray, washing to eliminate their energy, can also moderate a harmful chemistry thing of being called"free radicals", that is what skin appears after encountering to the ultraviolet ray the breakage.The melanin is a kind of the output dye usually is saved in a skin, hair and see the dye layer and adrenal glands marrow etc. of the retina by enzyme(the Lao An is sour-the tyrosine An Ji is sour).The Lao An is sour(Ttyosinase) and would activate, pile up and is sour the Lao An to oxidize into melanin through the copper ion in the skin.In fact, the creation of the melanin is the nature that the human body skin resists the external world environment in order to defense system, seeming to prevent ultraviolet ray's injury for skin from. 


Tyrosinase (monophenol monooxygenase) (EC; CAS number: 9002-10-2) is an enzyme that catalyses the oxidation of phenols (such as tyrosine) and is widespread in plants and animals. Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme present in plant and animal tissues that catalyzes the production of melanin and other pigments from tyrosine by oxidation, as in the blackening of a peeled or sliced potato exposed to air. When a person has a mutated tyrosinase gene they have albinism, a hereditary disease that one in every 17,000 person has in the United States.


[edit] Chemical Reactions

Tyrosinase carries out the oxidation of phenols such as tyrosine and catechol using dioxygen (O2). In the presence of catechol, benzoquinone is formed (see reaction below). Hydrogens removed from catechol combine with oxygen to form water.

The active site in the tyrosinase enzyme contains two closely located copper atoms that interact with dioxygen to form a highly reactive chemical intermediate that then oxidizes the substrate. The activity of tyrosinase is similar to catechol oxidase, a related class of copper oxidases.













Other data

EC number


Chr. 11 q14-q21