Scientific term:Capsicum frutescens L.

Call again:  Pepper, sea Jiao, hot son, hot corn, Qin Jiao

Is a kind of Jia section hot pepper to belong to a plant

The hot pepper belongs to for get herbs for a year.The single leaf gets with each other, leaf slice egg circular.The calyx cup form, the flower white.The fruit usually becomes the cone form or long circular, to separate the dynasty the God or get down;Immaturity present green, mature behind become a sauce color, fresh red, yellow or purple, with red most is familiar.Seed kidney form, thin yellow, the Pei bead curves.The fruit cause and effect skin of the hot pepper has a capsaicin and has hot flavor. 

The hot pepper flavor all belongs to hot hot, have wet win spread cold, open stomach in addition to wet of effect, eat some hot pepper to be good for the human body health properly, the hot pepper is to be good for the stomach, because the capsaicin can stimulate the saliva gland in the mouth cavity, increasing saliva to secrete, speed stomach and intestines peristalsis, be advantageous to food of digest and absorb. 

Hot pepper be the nourishment, because have a great deal of vitamin A, C and the carrot vegetable in the hot pepper, is one of the vegetable that the nourishment enriches, eating the hot pepper has already dispeled wet in addition to cold function, can also prevent and cure chilblains.

Capsaicin it contained abundant vitamin , C in the hot pepper, still had in addition a hot pepper to only just have, and there is also red a kind of hot pepper in the red, the yellow of the hot pepper, sweet Jiao vegetable(capsanthin), these two kinds of compositions all only are existed in a hot pepper in, the capsaicin exists in the hot pepper flesh of fruits, and hot pepper the red vegetable then is existed in the hot pepper skin, its function similar the carrot vegetable.

The content of the vitamin C occupies the first in the vegetable in the hot pepper.

Not all hot peppers belong to plants to all have hot flavor, having no the green pepper, sweet Jiao of hot flavor for example.The hot degree of the hot pepper by history high index sign of Wei Er measure, it is said that the most hot hot pepper Na adds a hot pepper to reach Wei Er with high history in the world. 

The hot pepper is produced in tropical region in Central and South America at first.Get to Puru from Mexico, the Indian tamed to turn this kind of crops for many times on the history.At the end of centuries, Columbus brings back a hot pepper Europe after arriving America, and spreads to other places in world from here.The Ming Dynasty streams into China.Chen Hao son in Manchu dynasty start having pepper to jot down.Previously, the mordacious condiment of China mainly are the ginger and pepper.Chinese everyplace is widespread to have a cultivation now, becoming a popularize vegetable.Szechwan, people in Hunan, expensive state etc. province like particularly, there is the Yan"Szechwan the person isn't afraid and hot, person in Hunan is hot and not afraid, the expensive state person afraid not hot". 

Is the expensive state Sui sun prosperous?Dynasty God Jiao, 1999 Chinese agriculture would speciality the economic professional committee named after "the country of the Chinese hot pepper".


Nourishment composition

Humidity grams, protein grams, fats defend  grams, carbohydrates  grams, calorieses  kilocalories, thick fiber grams, ashes divide into  grams, calciums  milligrams, Lins  milligrams, irons  milligrams, carrots plain  milligramses, the sulphur An vegetable  gram, check yellow vegetable  the milligrams, the Ni grams are sour  milligrams, anti- the bad blood is sour  milligram.


The nourishment is analytical

The mordacious flavor of the hot pepper, is because the hot pepper contains of the capsaicin produce.The fire of the hot pepper red color is the cause of"hot pepper red vegetable" that the hot pepper contains, in addition, the hot pepper still enriches to contain protein, fat to defend, the carrot vegetable, the vitamin C and the vitamin AN and calcium, Lin, iron etc. material, especially the content of the vitamin C comes out in front in the vegetable, a person's a day want itonly 100 gram fresh hot pepper, can satisfy a body's demand for the vitamin C.The vitamin C can strengthen hair thin blood vessel holdout pressure, maintaining blood vessel normally through sex.


二、           The chemistry type of the capsaicin:





Systematic name

(E)-N- (4-hydroxy-
3-methoxybenzyl) -

Molecular formula




CAS number


Melting point

62 - 65 °C


The chemical compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue it comes in contact with. Capsaicin and several related compounds are called capsaicinoids and are produced as a secondary metabolite by chili peppers, probably as deterrents against herbivores. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, crystalline to waxy compound.



Capsaicin is the main capsaicinoid in chili peppers, followed by dihydrocapsaicin. These two compounds are also about twice as potent to the taste and nerves as the minor capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, and homocapsaicin. Dilute solutions of pure capsaicinoids produced different types of pungency; however, these differences were not noted using more concentrated solutions.




Natural function

Capsaicin is present in large quantities in the seeds and fleshy fruits of plants in the genus Capsicum. Such fruits have typically evolved to aid in seed dispersal by attracting animals, which consume the fruits and swallow the seeds, which pass through the digestive tract and are subsequently deposited elsewhere. Thus, it may seem paradoxical that a plant would expend the considerable amount of resources necessary to produce large, juicy fruits, only to fill them with a compound that acts as a powerful deterrent.

The seeds of Capsicum plants, however, are predominantly dispersed by birds, in which capsaicin has analgesic properties rather than acting as an irritant. Chili pepper seeds consumed by birds pass through the digestive tract unharmed, whereas those consumed by mammals do not germinate at all. The presence of capsaicin in the fruits therefore protects them from being consumed by mammals, which wouldn't provide any benefit to the plant, while allowing them to be eaten by its preferred seed carriers.


Because of the burning sensation caused by capsaicin when it comes in contact with human flesh, it is commonly used in food products to give them added spice or "heat" (piquancy). The degree of heat found within a food is measured on the Scoville scale. Typically the capsaicin is obtained from chili peppers. Hot sauce is an example of a product customarily containing large amounts of capsaicin and may contain chili peppers or pure capsaicin.

Capsaicin is a nonpolar molecule, and is therefore hydrophobic. Consequently, drinking water to reduce the burning caused by the molecule is ineffective, as the nonpolar capsaicin is unable to dissolve in the polar water molecules, and is instead spread across the surface of the mouth. This works by the same principle that causes oil and water to separate.

Instead, consuming foods high in fats and oils, such as milk or bread and butter, will help alleviate the burning. The lipophilic capsaicin is able to mix freely with the fats in the food and is removed from the surface of the mouth. Alcohol and alcoholic beverages also dissolve capsaicin due to the solvent characteristics of ethanol. Over time, the capsaicin will also dissipate on its own.



Capsaicin is currently used in topical ointments to relieve the pain of peripheral neuropathy such as post-herpetic neuralgia caused by shingles. It may be used in concentrations of between .

It may also be used as a cream for the temporary relief of minor aches and pains of muscles and joints associated with arthritis, simple backache, strains and sprains. The treatment typically involves the application of a topical anesthetic until the area is numb. Then the capsaicin is applied by a therapist wearing rubber gloves and a face mask. The capsaicin remains on the skin until the patient starts to feel the "heat", at which point it is promptly removed. Capsaicin is also available in large adhesive bandages that can be applied to the back.

The result appears to be that the nerves are overwhelmed from the burning sensation and are unable to report pain for an extended period of time. With chronic exposure to capsaicin, neurons are depleted of neurotransmitters and it leads to reduction in sensation of pain and blockade of neurogenic inflammation. If capsaicin is removed, the neurons recover.

Capsaicin is being explored as a cure for diabetes by researchers in Toronto, Canada. Early work curing diabetic mice looks promising. Capsaicin was injected into pancreatic sensory nerves of mice with Type 1 diabetes because of a suspected link between the nerves and diabetes.

The American Association for Cancer Research reports studies suggesting capsaicin is able to kill prostate cancer cells by causing them to undergo apoptosis.  The studies were performed on tumors formed by human prostate cancer cell cultures grown in mouse models, and showed tumors treated with capsaicin were about one-fifth the size of the untreated tumors.

Another study carried out at the University of Nottingham suggests capsaicin is able to trigger apopotosis in human lung cancer cells as well.


Non-lethal force

Capsaicin is also the active ingredient in the chemical riot control agent pepper spray. When the spray comes in contact with skin, especially eyes or mucous membranes, it is very painful. Refer to the Scoville scale for a comparison of pepper spray to other sources of capsaicin.

In large quantities, capsaicin can cause death. Symptoms of overdose include difficulty breathing, blue skin, and convulsions. The large amount needed to kill an adult human and the low concentration of capsaicin in chilis make accidental poisoning by chili consumption exceedingly unlikely.


三、           The effect of the capsaicin

The hot pepper relieves pain composition

The valid composition that has in the hot pepper calls it is "the capsaicin Capsaicin", the capsaicin relieves pain of the physiology mechanism lie in:The capsaicin can advance the P material in the exhaustion nerve cell, making the conduction of the ache message become not intelligent, the central nervous system system will not send out the message of the ache then, opposite of the feeling of the ache will reduce a lot.In recent years, the Euro-American medical science field usage capsaicin application is in the aspects of controling headache, neuralgia, trigeminal nerve pain, the bone arthritis, type rheumatism arthritis waiting for ache, the result is all very good.Besides, in some research manifestation hot pepper powders have abundant of natural"sour salt" material, the function and of A Si efficacious fruit likeness, so can develop the function of hot solution in town pain.


The hot pepper can make the skin flush

Draw capsaicin on the skin, will extend capillaries, promote circulation, and make the skin flush, have fever.There has been manufacturer making use of this principle currently, put the capsaicin into socks, become "the hot pepper Wa", be provided for winter to keep warm to use.


The hot pepper can ease the unwell condition of illness of the cold

Foryears, the food of the mordacity is often seen fit to to the phlegm, find to seem to is also such now.The food of the mordacity can the dilution secrete of sticky liquid, and help phlegm is coughed, the in order to prevent obstructs breath way.

The University of California teaches strange Man of the Ai text to even say:"Many effects of the cold medicines, a cough medicines that sell in the pharmacy are completely similar to the hot pepper, but I feel eating a hot pepper is better, because it has no side effect completely."


Prevent cancer

Seeing from the research of the Epidemiology, it is many to love hot race, if Southeast Asia, India contracts the probabilities of the cancer to all compare west a nation few.The scientist calculates, in the food of these mordacities, oneself have the material that many anti-s oxidize, oxidize with the chronic disease, cancer with aging original have a direct pass connect.The research that also is American Hawaiian university recently points out that hot pepper, carrot etc. the type carrot vegetable within vegetable can stimulate the cell gene(because of When the organ cancer turn, the cell the system of the commutation message will take place breakdown) that informs a message, this may have important effect in preventing cancer.


Prevent artery from hardenning

It have the β carrot vegetable in a red pepper of on first the amount of needed, and the β carrot vegetable is the anti- oxidizing agent of the strong power, can deal with low density cholesterol to be oxidized a harmful type.Low density cholesterol once being oxidized be like the butter didn't leave refrigerator, will become bad material to jam artery.In other words is the beginning that the β carrot vegetable hardens a beginning in the artery to start a stage, start interfering.


Safeguard a cardiovascular health

The capsaicin in the hot pepper has the blood platelets sticky of decrease and reduce sticky Zhi function of blood.Besides, the hot pepper contains abundant vitamin C and the vitamin P, also playing the role of the anti- oxidizing agent, can protect the health of the cardiovascular cell.

The hairdressing result of the capsaicin

Promote fat burnable

Eating the hot pepper can promote metabolism, increase the depletion of the calories.The capsaicin can stimulate adrenaline to secrete, making the metabolism velocity promote, reducing piling up of fat.

Hot pepper the red vegetable is a type of carrot vegetable of a kind of, is also a popular anti- oxidizing agent currently.

The capsaicin can prevent the Yun skin from aging, make skin tightly solid, and, the capsaicin can also clean crease.